Analog closed-loop optogenetic modulation of hippocampal pyramidal cells dissociates gamma frequency and amplitude
Gamma-band oscillations are implicated in modulation of attention and integration of sensory information. The finding that cross-regional coherence varies with task and performance suggests a role for gamma oscillations in flexible communication among anatomically connected brain areas. How networks become entrained is incompletely understood. Specifically, it is unclear how the spectral and temporal characteristics of network oscillations can be altered on rapid timescales needed for efficient communication. We use closed-loop optogenetic modulation of principal cell excitability to interrogate the dynamical properties of hippocampal oscillations. Gamma frequency and amplitude can be modulated bi-directionally, and dissociated, by phase-advancing or delaying optogenetic feedback to pyramidal cells. Closed-loop modulation alters the synchrony rather than average frequency of action potentials, in principle avoiding disruption of population rate-coding of information. Modulation of phasic excitatory currents in principal neurons is sufficient to manipulate oscillations, suggesting that feed-forward excitation of pyramidal cells has an important role in determining oscillatory dynamics and the ability of networks to couple with one another.
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