Assessing 42 inflammatory markers in 321 control subjects and 887 major depressive disorder cases: BMI and other confounders and overall predictive ability for current depression
Timothy R. Powell,
Katherine J. Aitchison,
Marcella D.C. Rietschel,
Mojca Zvezdana Dernovšek,
Stephani L Hatch,
David A. Collier,
Posted 21 May 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/327239
Posted 21 May 2018
Inflammatory markers such as cytokines represent potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD). Many, generally small studies have examined the role of single markers and found significant associations. We assessed 42 inflammatory markers, namely cytokines, in the blood of 321 control subjects and 887 MDD cases. We tested whether individual inflammatory marker levels were significantly affected by MDD case/control status, current episode, or current depression severity, co-varying for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, current antidepressant use, ethnicity, assay batch and study effects. We further used machine learning algorithms to investigate if we could use our data to blindly discriminate MDD patients, or those in a current episode. We found broad and powerful influences of confounding factors on log-protein levels. Notably, IL-6 levels were very strongly influenced by BMI (p = 1.37 x 10-43, variance explained = 18%), while Interleukin-16 was the most significant predictor of current depressive episode (p = 0.003, variance explained = 0.9%, q < 0.1). No single inflammatory marker predicted MDD case/control status when a subject was not in a depressed episode, nor did any predict depression severity. Machine learning results revealed that using inflammatory marker data with clinical confounder information significantly increased precision for differentiating MDD patients who were in an episode. To conclude, a wide panel of inflammatory markers alongside clinical information may aid in predicting the onset of symptoms, but no single inflammatory protein is likely to represent a clinically useful biomarker for MDD diagnosis or prognosis. We note that the potential influence of physical health related and population stratification related confounders on inflammatory biomarker studies in psychiatry is considerable.
- Downloaded 562 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 37,549 out of 118,102
- In neuroscience: 5,490 out of 18,580
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 70,761 out of 118,102
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 95,897 out of 118,102
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!