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A single intranasal dose of chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques

By Ahmed O Hassan, Friederike Feldmann, Haiyan Zhao, David T Curiel, Atsushi Okumura, Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, James Brett Case, Kimberly Meade-White, Julie Callison, Jamie Lovaglio, Patrick W. Hanley, Dana P. Scott, Daved H Fremont, Heinz Feldmann, Michael S. Diamond

Posted 26 Jan 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.01.26.428251

The deployment of a vaccine that limits transmission and disease likely will be required to end the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We recently described the protective activity of an intranasally-administered chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a pre-fusion stabilized spike (S) protein (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Here, we show the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this vaccine in non-human primates. Rhesus macaques were immunized with ChAd-Control or ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S and challenged one month later by combined intranasal and intrabronchial routes with SARS-CoV-2. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses and limited or prevented infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. As this single intranasal dose vaccine confers protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates, it is a promising candidate for limiting SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in humans.

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