In addition to their support role in neurotransmitter and ion buffering, astrocytes directly regulate neurotransmission at synapses via local bidirectional signaling with neurons. Here, we reveal a new form of neuronal-astrocytic signaling that transmits retrograde dendritic signals to upstream neurons to activate recurrent synaptic circuits. Norepinephrine activates α-adrenoreceptors in hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurons to stimulate dendritic release, which triggers an astrocytic calcium response and release of ATP; ATP stimulates action potentials in upstream glutamate and GABA neurons to activate recurrent excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits to the CRF neurons. Thus, norepinephrine activates a novel retrograde signaling mechanism in CRF neurons that engages astrocytes in order to extend dendritic volume transmission to reach distal presynaptic glutamate and GABA neurons, thereby amplifying volume transmission mediated by dendritic release.
- Downloaded 523 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 44,594
- In neuroscience: 6,619
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 66,124
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 80,341
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!