Building Models of Functional Interactions Among Brain Domains that Encode Varying Information Complexity: A Schizophrenia Case Study
Revealing associations among various structural and functional patterns of the brain can yield highly informative results about the healthy and disordered brain. Studies using neuroimaging data have more recently begun to utilize the information within as well as across various functional and anatomical domains (i.e., groups of brain networks). However, most whole-brain approaches assume similar complexity of interactions throughout the brain. Here we investigate the hypothesis that interactions between brain networks capture varying amounts of complexity, and that we can better capture this information by varying the complexity of the model subspace structure based on available training data. To do this, we employ a Bayesian optimization-based framework known as the Tree Parzen Estimator (TPE) to identify, exploit and analyze patterns of variation in the information encoded by temporal information extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) subdomains of the brain. Using a repeated cross-validation procedure on a schizophrenia classification task, we demonstrate evidence that interactions between specific functional subdomains are better characterized by more sophisticated model architectures compared to less complicated ones required by the others for optimally contributing towards classification and understanding the brain's functional interactions. We show that functional subdomains known to be involved in schizophrenia require more complex architectures to optimally unravel discriminatory information about the disorder. Our study points to the need for adaptive, hierarchical learning frameworks that cater differently to the features from different subdomains, not only for a better prediction but also for enabling the identification of features predicting the outcome of interest.
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