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The hippocampus is critically important for a diverse range of cognitive processes, such as episodic memory, prospective memory, affective processing, and spatial navigation. The human hippocampus has been thought of as being solely functionally connected to a set of neocortical regions known as the default mode network (DMN), which supports self-referential cognition. Using individual-specific precision functional mapping of resting state fMRI data, we found the anterior hippocampus (head and body) to be preferentially connected to the DMN as expected. The hippocampal tail, however, was strongly preferentially connected to the parietal memory network (PMN), which supports goal-oriented cognition and stimulus recognition. This resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) anterior-posterior dichotomy was well-matched by differences in task deactivations and anatomical segmentations of the hippocampus. Task deactivations were localized to the head and body of the hippocampus (DMN), relatively sparing the tail (PMN). Anterior and posterior hippocampal connectivity was network-specific even though the DMN and PMN are interdigitated in medial parietal cortex. The functional dichotomization of the hippocampus into anterior DMN-connected and posterior PMN-connected parcels suggests parallel, but distinct circuits between the hippocampus and medial parietal cortex for self vs. goal-oriented processing.

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