Interest in time-resolved connectivity in fMRI has grown rapidly in recent years. The most widely used technique for studying connectivity changes over time utilizes a sliding windows approach. There has been some debate about the utility of shorter versus longer windows, the use of fixed versus adaptive windows, as well as whether observed resting state dynamics during wakefulness may be predominantly due to changes in sleep state and subject head motion. In this work we use an independent component analysis (ICA)-based pipeline applied to concurrent EEG/fMRI data collected during wakefulness and various sleep stages and show: 1) connectivity states obtained from clustering sliding windowed correlations of resting state functional network time courses well classify the sleep states obtained from EEG data, 2) using shorter sliding windows instead of longer non-overlapping windows improves the ability to capture transition dynamics even at windows as short as 30 seconds, 3) motion appears to be mostly associated with one of the states rather than spread across all of them 4) a fixed tapered sliding window approach outperforms an adaptive dynamic conditional correlation approach, and 5) consistent with prior EEG/fMRI work, we identify evidence of multiple states within the wakeful condition which are able to be classified with high accuracy. Classification of wakeful only states suggest the presence of time-varying changes in connectivity in fMRI data beyond sleep state or motion. Results also inform about advantageous technical choices, and the identification of different clusters within wakefulness that are separable suggest further studies in this direction.
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