Genome-Wide Association Identifies the First Risk Loci for Psychosis in Alzheimer Disease
Mary Ann A. DeMichele-Sweet,
Janet C. Harwood,
Elise A. Weamer,
NIA-LOAD Family Based Study Consortium,
Alzheimers Disease Genetics Consortium ADGC,
Diana de Ronchi,
Oscar L. Lopez,
M. Ilyas Kamboh,
Posted 11 Aug 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.07.20139261
Posted 11 Aug 2020
Psychotic symptoms, defined as the occurrence of delusions or hallucinations, are frequent in Alzheimer disease (AD with psychosis, AD+P). AD+P affects ~50% of individuals with AD, identifies a subgroup with poor outcomes, and is associated with a greater degree of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms, compared to subjects without psychosis (AD-P). Although the estimated heritability of AD+P is 61%, genetic sources of risk are unknown. We report a genome-wide meta-analysis of 12,317 AD subjects, 5,445 AD+P. Results showed common genetic variation accounted for a significant portion of heritability. Two loci, one in ENPP6 (rs9994623, O.R. (95%CI) 1.16 (1.10, 1.22), p=1.26x10-8) and one spanning the 3-prime-UTR of an alternatively spliced transcript of SUMF1 (rs201109606, O.R. 0.65 (0.56-0.76), p=3.24x10-8), had genome-wide significant associations with AD+P. Gene-based analysis identified a significant association with APOE, due to the APOE risk haplotype epsilon-4. AD+P demonstrated negative genetic correlations with cognitive and educational attainment and positive genetic correlation with depressive symptoms. We previously observed a negative genetic correlation with schizophrenia; instead, we now found a stronger negative correlation with the related phenotype of bipolar disorder. Analysis of polygenic risk scores supported this genetic correlation and documented a positive genetic correlation with risk variation for AD, beyond the effect of epsilon-4. We also document a small set of SNPs likely to affect risk for AD+P and AD or schizophrenia. These findings provide the first unbiased identification of the association of psychosis in AD with common genetic variation and provide insights into its genetic architecture.
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