A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward
Oliver Van Oekelen,
Diane Marie Del Valle,
Hearn Jay Cho,
Posted 05 Jun 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.06.04.20122846
Posted 05 Jun 2020
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has resulted in over 100,000 deaths in the United States. Our institution has treated over 2,000 COVID-19 patients during the pandemic in New York City. The pandemic directly impacted cancer patients and the organization of cancer care. Mount Sinai Hospital has a large and diverse multiple myeloma (MM) population. Herein, we report the characteristics of COVID-19 infection and serological response in MM patients in a large tertiary care institution in New York. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on a cohort of 58 patients with a plasma-cell disorder (54 MM, 4 smoldering MM) who developed COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. We report epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics including persistence of viral detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, treatments initiated, and outcomes. Results: Of the 58 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 36 were hospitalized and 22 were managed at home. The median age was 67 years; 52% of patients were male and 63% were non-white. Hypertension (64%), hyperlipidemia (62%), obesity (37%), diabetes mellitus (28%), chronic kidney disease (24%) and lung disease (21%) were the most common comorbidities. In the total cohort, 14 patients (24%) died. Older age (>70 years), male sex, cardiovascular risk, and patients not in complete remission (CR) or stringent CR were significantly (p<0.05) associated with hospitalization. Among hospitalized patients, laboratory findings demonstrated elevation of traditional inflammatory markers (CRP, ferritin, D-dimer) and a significant (p<0.05) association between elevated inflammatory markers, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, non-white race, and mortality. Ninety-six percent (22/23) of patients developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at a median of 32 days after initial diagnosis. Median time to PCR negativity was 43 (range 19-68) days from initial positive PCR. Conclusions: Drug exposure and MM disease status at the time of contracting COVID-19 had no bearing on mortality. Mounting a severe inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 and severe hypogammaglobulinemia were associated with higher mortality. The majority of patients mounted an antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings pave a path to identification of vulnerable MM patients who need early intervention to improve outcome in future outbreaks of COVID-19.
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