Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans
Peter H Sudmant,
Joshua G. Schraiber,
Kirsten I. Bos,
Heng M Li,
Cesare de Filippo,
Hamza A. Babiker,
Claudio M. Bravi,
David E. C. Cole,
George van Driem,
Sardana A. Fedorova,
Irene Gallego Romero,
Aashish R. Jha,
Robert W. Mahley,
Elena B. Starikovskaya,
Mark G. Thomas,
Sarah A. Tishkoff,
Evan E. Eichler,
Posted 23 Dec 2013
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/001552 (published DOI: 10.1038/nature13673)
Posted 23 Dec 2013
We sequenced genomes from a ~7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who were most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians and contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a "Basal Eurasian" lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages.
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