Rxivist logo

By meta-analyzing rare coding variants in whole-exome sequences of 4,264 schizophrenia cases and 9,343 controls, de novo mutations in 1,077 trios, and array-based copy number variant calls from 6,882 cases and 11,255 controls, we show that individuals with schizophrenia carry a significant burden of rare damaging variants in a subset of 3,230 "highly constrained" genes previously identified as having near-complete depletion of protein truncating variants. Furthermore, rare variant enrichment analyses demonstrate that this burden is concentrated in known autism spectrum disorder risk genes, genes diagnostic of severe developmental disorders, and the autism-implicated sets of promoter targets of CHD8, and mRNA targets of FMRP. We further show that schizophrenia patients with intellectual disability have a greater enrichment of rare damaging variants in highly constrained genes and developmental disorder genes, but that a weaker but significant enrichment exists throughout the larger schizophrenia population. Combined, our results demonstrate that schizophrenia risk loci of large effect across a range of variant types implicate a common set of genes shared with broader neurodevelopmental disorders, suggesting a path forward in identifying additional risk genes in psychiatric disorders and further supporting a neurodevelopmental etiology to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Download data

  • Downloaded 961 times
  • Download rankings, all-time:
    • Site-wide: 14,326 out of 101,468
    • In genetics: 919 out of 5,041
  • Year to date:
    • Site-wide: 53,635 out of 101,468
  • Since beginning of last month:
    • Site-wide: 34,075 out of 101,468

Altmetric data

Downloads over time

Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide


Sign up for the Rxivist weekly newsletter! (Click here for more details.)


  • 20 Oct 2020: Support for sorting preprints using Twitter activity has been removed, at least temporarily, until a new source of social media activity data becomes available.
  • 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
  • 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
  • 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
  • 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
  • 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
  • 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
  • 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
  • 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!