Associations between Early Midlife Lifestyle Behaviors, Young Adult Cognitive Reserve and Advanced Predicted Brain Age in Late Midlife
Carol E Franz,
Sean N Hatton,
Jeremy A Elman,
Nathan A. Gillespie,
Nathan A Whitsel,
Olivia K Puckett,
Anders M Dale,
Lisa T Eyler,
Donald J. Hagler,
Richard L Hauger,
Michael C. Neale,
Matthew S. Panizzon,
Rahul C Pearce,
Chandra R Reynolds,
Michael J. Lyons,
Posted 03 Nov 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.11.02.362780
Posted 03 Nov 2020
ABSTRACT Importance: Both cognitive reserve and modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with dementia risk. The effect of early lifestyle behaviors and cognitive reserve on late midlife brain aging could inform early identification and risk reduction of future dementia. Objective: Determine associations of young adult cognitive reserve, early midlife lifestyle behaviors, and the reserve-by-lifestyle interaction on late midlife brain age. Examine the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and brain age. Design: Participants were from the nationally representative Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Cognitive reserve was assessed at median age 20 years (IQR=1.38) with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). Lifestyle behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and social engagement) were assessed at median age 41 (IQR=5.00). Structural brain imaging conducted at median age 69 (IQR=4.74) was used to construct predicted brain age difference scores (PBAD=chronological age minus predicted brain age) and MCI was ascertained. Setting: In-person cognitive testing (ages 20 and 69); mailed survey (age 41); structural MRI, MCI diagnosis at University of California, San Diego (age 69). Participants: 431 community-dwelling men. Exposures: AFQT; self-reported health and lifestyle behaviors. Main outcomes and measures: PBAD scores; MCI. Results. In fully adjusted mixed linear models, age 20 cognitive reserve and the age 41 lifestyle composite were associated with age 69 PBAD [t (104)=2.62, p=0.01, 95%CI 0.874, 6.285; t (104)=3.37, p=0.001, 95%CI 0.583, 2.249 respectively] as was the reserve-by-lifestyle interaction [t (104) = -2.29, p=0.02, 95%CI -2.330, -0.167]. Unfavorable lifestyle predicted more advanced brain age, but only for those with lower young adult cognitive reserve. The MCI group had more advanced brain age (F (2,130) = 3.13; p=0.05). Conclusions and relevance. Favorable lifestyle behaviors promoted resistance to accelerated brain aging 3 decades later for those with lower young adult cognitive reserve. High reserve appeared to be protective regardless of lifestyle. The association with MCI suggests that advanced PBAD scores reflect poorer brain integrity, although it is unclear if PBAD is related to Alzheimer's dementia specifically. Lower cognitive reserve increases risk for dementia, but early lifestyle modification may promote healthier brain aging and dementia risk reduction, particularly in those with lower reserve. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
- Downloaded 98 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 116,797
- In neuroscience: 18,244
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 44,206
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 54,800
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!