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De novo mutations in regulatory elements cause neurodevelopmental disorders

By Patrick J Short, Jeremy F McRae, Giuseppe Gallone, Alejandro Sifrim, Hyejung Won, Daniel H. Geschwind, Caroline F Wright, Helen V Firth, David R FitzPatrick, Jeffrey C Barrett, Matthew E Hurles, on behalf of the DDD study

Posted 13 Mar 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/112896 (published DOI: 10.1038/nature25983)

De novo mutations in hundreds of different genes collectively cause 25-42% of severe developmental disorders (DD). The cause in the remaining cases is largely unknown. The role of de novo mutations in regulatory elements affecting known DD-associated genes or other genes is essentially unexplored. We identified de novo mutations in three classes of putative regulatory elements in almost 8,000 DD patients. Here we show that de novo mutations in highly conserved fetal-brain active elements are significantly and specifically enriched in neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified a significant two-fold enrichment of recurrently mutated elements. We estimate that, genome-wide, de novo mutations in fetal-brain active elements are likely to be causal for 1-3% of patients without a diagnostic coding variant and that only a small fraction (<2%) of de novo mutations in these elements are pathogenic. Our findings represent a robust estimate of the contribution of de novo mutations in regulatory elements to this genetically heterogeneous set of disorders, and emphasise the importance of combining functional and evolutionary evidence to delineate regulatory causes of genetic disorders.

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