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Currently indexing 128,741 papers from 551,614 authors.

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Results 100801 through 100820 out of 127436

 

100801: Intracellular absorption underlies collective bacterial tolerance towards an antimicrobial peptide

Fan Wu, Cheemeng Tan

203 downloads (posted 04 May 2018) systems biology

The collective tolerance towards antimicrobial peptides (APs) is thought to occur primarily through mechanisms associated with live bacterial cells. In contrast to the focus on live cells, we discover that the LL37 antimicrobial peptide kills Escherichia coli, forming a subpopulation of dead cells that absorbs the remaining LL37 into its intracellular space. Combining mathematical modeling with population and single-cell experiments, we show that bacteria absorb LL37 at a timing that coincides with the permeabilization of their cytoplasmic membranes. Furthermore, we show that one bacterial strain can absorb LL37 and protect another strain from killing by LL37. Finally, we demonstrate that the intracellular absorption of LL37 can be reduced using a peptide adjuvant. In contrast to the existing collective tolerance mechanisms, we show that the dead-bacterial absorption of APs is a dynamic process that leads to emergent population behavior, and the work suggests new directions to enhance the efficacy of APs.

https://rxivist.org/papers/29307
https://doi.org/10.1101/314138

100802: Observing changes in human functioning during induced sleep deficiency and recovery periods

Jeremi K. Ochab, Jerzy Szwed et al.

203 downloads (posted 02 Jul 2019) neuroscience

The duration of sleep, wakefulness and dynamic changes in human performance are determined by neural and genetic mechanisms. Sleep deprivation and chronic restriction of sleep cause perturbations of circadian rhythmicity and degradation of waking alertness as reflected in attention, cognitive efficiency and memory. In this work we report on multiple neurobehavioral correlates of sleep loss in healthy adults in an unprecedented study comprising 21 consecutive days divided into periods of 4 days of regular life (a baselin...

https://rxivist.org/papers/54821
https://doi.org/10.1101/690313

100803: Neural and linguistic differences explain priming and interference during naming

Tao Wei, Tatiana T. Schnur

203 downloads (posted 13 Feb 2019) neuroscience

When naming an object, humans are faster to produce the name ("cat") if immediately having named a related object ("dog") but paradoxically slower to name the same object ("cat") if there are intervening speech acts (Wei and Schnur 2019). This dependence of behavior on prior experience is ubiquitous in other domains, often termed "priming" (if behavior is speeded) or "interference" (if behavior is slower). However, it is unknown the changes in the language system (conceptual, lexical, and/or connections between represen...

https://rxivist.org/papers/43816
https://doi.org/10.1101/547745

100804: Automated Summarisation of SDOCT Volumes using Deep Learning: Transfer Learning vs de novo Trained Networks

Bhavna J. Antony, Stefan Maetschke et al.

203 downloads (posted 21 Sep 2018) bioengineering

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality that generates high-resolution volumetric images. This modality finds widespread usage in ophthalmology for the diagnosis and management of various ocular conditions. The volumes generated can contain 200 or more B-scans. Manual inspection of such large quantity of scans is time consuming and error prone in most clinical settings. Here, we present a method for the generation of visual summaries of SDOCT volumes, wherein a small set o...

https://rxivist.org/papers/33028
https://doi.org/10.1101/424507

100805: The Urfold: Structural Similarity Just above the Superfold Level?

Cameron Mura, Stella Veretnik et al.

203 downloads (posted 07 Aug 2019) bioinformatics

We suspect that there is a level of granularity of protein structure intermediate between the classical levels of 'architecture' and 'topology', as reflected in such phenomena as extensive 3D structural similarity above the level of (super)folds. Here, we examine this notion of architectural identity despite topological variability, starting with a concept that we call the 'Urfold'. We believe that this model could offer a new conceptual approach for protein structural analysis and classification: indeed, the Urfold con...

https://rxivist.org/papers/57691
https://doi.org/10.1101/728030

100806: Regulating Soil Bacterial Diversity, Enzyme Activities and Community Composition Using Residues from Golden Apple Snails

Jiaxin Wang, Xuening Lu et al.

203 downloads (posted 04 Jul 2019) ecology

Golden apple snails (GAS) have become a serious pest for agricultural production in Asia. A sustainable method for managing GAS is urgently needed, including potentially using them to produce commercial products. In this study, we evaluate the effects of GAS residues (shell and meat) on soil pH, bacterial diversity, enzyme activities, and other soil characteristics. Results showed that the amendment of GAS residues significantly elevated soil pH (to near-neutral), total organic carbon (TOC) (by 10-134%), NO3-N (by 46-91...

https://rxivist.org/papers/54654
https://doi.org/10.1101/692822

100807: Estrogen mediates acute elastic fibre homeostasis in skin

Charis R Saville, David F. Holmes et al.

203 downloads (posted 08 Aug 2019) biophysics

Remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix makes a major contribution to skin fragility in the elderly. The peri-menopausal period in females is also associated with an age-like phenotype which can be reversed by hormone replacement therapy. This suggests a direct link between circulating hormone levels and tissue ageing. Despite work investigating the role of estrogen as a regulator of collagen fibril abundance and structure, the influence of estrogen on the elastic fibre system remains poorly defined. Here we used...

https://rxivist.org/papers/57752
https://doi.org/10.1101/728865

100808: Non-native Interactions Explain the Folding Rate Differences in α-Spectrin Domains and the Origin of Internal Friction Effects

Fernando Bruno da Silva, Vinícius G. Contessoto et al.

203 downloads (posted 10 Dec 2017) biophysics

Recent experimental and computational studies have shown the influence of internal friction in protein folding dynamics. However, uncertainty remains over its molecular origin. α-spectrin experimental results indicate that R15 domain folds three orders of magnitude faster than its homologous R16 and R17. Such anomalous observations are usually attributed to the influence of internal friction on protein folding rates. To study this phenomenon, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations with structure-based Cα models, ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/30539
https://doi.org/10.1101/232116

100809: Emodin Attenuates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis via Regulation of TIMP1/MM9 Pathway in Rats

Dongmei Li, Qingchuan Zhang et al.

203 downloads (posted 15 Aug 2019) molecular biology

Emodin has a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-bacterial infection, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, regulation of gastrointestinal activities and anti-hepatic and lung fibrosis. However, the role of emodin in the regulation of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the regulation of emodin in RIF and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms. We established a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model to simulate renal interstitial f...

https://rxivist.org/papers/58254
https://doi.org/10.1101/736876

100810: An high dose of a conjugated linoleic acid increases fatty liver and insulin resistance in lactating mice

Kun Pang, Song bo Zhu et al.

203 downloads (posted 25 Mar 2019) physiology

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a high dose of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lactating mice. In experiment one, KUNMING mice were separated into four groups (n = 6 per group); the control (CON) group received 3.0% linoleic acid oil (LA), the L-CLA group received 1.0% LA and 2.0% CLA mixture, the M-CLA group received 2.0% LA and 1.0% CLA mixture, and the H-CLA group received 3.0% CLA mixture. Feeding proceeded from day 4 to day 10 during lactation. In experiment two, the CON group received 2.0% LA and the ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/46890
https://doi.org/10.1101/588962

100811: Human Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk is driven by eco-social interactions in rural communities of the Argentine Chaco

Maria del P. Fernandez, Maria Sol Gaspe et al.

203 downloads (posted 03 May 2019) epidemiology

The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans is determined by multiple ecological, socio-economic and cultural factors acting at different scales. Their effects on the human risk of infection with T. cruzi have often been examined separately or using a limited set of ecological and socio-demographic variables. Herein, we integrated the ecological and social dimensions of human disease risk with the spatial distribution patterns of human and vector ( Triatoma infestans ) infection with T. cruzi in rural communities of...

https://rxivist.org/papers/49876
https://doi.org/10.1101/627141

100812: Using the modified male osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Taiwan to predict osteoporosis onset – a sub-study of the Taiwan osteoporosis survey

Dung-Huan Liu, Tien-Tsai Cheng et al.

203 downloads (posted 26 Nov 2018) immunology

Purpose To develop a risk index by item reduction from multiple variable regression, which can identify male Taiwanese patients at risk of developing osteoporosis. Methods To develop the model, a risk index was identified by item reduction from multivariate regression analysis. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and their sensitivity/specificity, MOSTAi was validated in a separate cohort of Taiwanese men and its performance with compared with the National Osteoporosis Foundation recommendations...

https://rxivist.org/papers/37395
https://doi.org/10.1101/479303

100813: Which food patches are worth exploring? Foraging desert birds do not follow environmental indicators of seed abundance at small scales: a field experiment

Fernando A. Milesi, Javier Lopez de Casenave et al.

203 downloads (posted 11 Apr 2018) ecology

Consumers should show strong spatial preferences when foraging in environments where food availability is highly heterogeneous and predictable from its correlation with informative environmental features. This is the case for postdispersal granivores in most arid areas, where soil seed bank abundance and composition associates persistently with vegetation structure at small scales (e.g., decimeters to meters). We analysed seasonal single-seed removal by granivorous birds from 300 experimental devices in the algarrobal o...

https://rxivist.org/papers/18647
https://doi.org/10.1101/295923

100814: The Alkaliphilic side of Staphylococcus aureus

Manisha Vaish, Amyeo Jereen et al.

203 downloads (posted 14 Aug 2019) microbiology

The genome of Staphylococcus aureus has eight structurally distinct cation/proton antiporters (CPA) that play significant roles in maintaining cytoplasmic pH and ions in extreme conditions. These antiporters enable S. aureus to persist under conditions that are favorable to the bacterium but unfavorable to animal host including humans. In this study, we report physiological roles and catalytic properties of NhaC (NhaC1, NhaC2, and NhaC3), CPA1 (CPA1-1 and CPA1-2) and CPA2 family antiporters and how these antiporters cro...

https://rxivist.org/papers/58188
https://doi.org/10.1101/735191

100815: Unexpected Loss of Sensitivity to the nAChR Antagonist Activity of Mecamylamine and DHβE in Nicotine-Tolerant C57BL/6J Mice

Fernando B. de Moura, Lance R. McMahon

203 downloads (posted 28 Nov 2018) pharmacology and toxicology

There has always been interest in developing nAChR antagonists as smoking cessation aids, to add to nAChR agonists (e.g., nicotine replacement) already used for that indication. Previous studies have demonstrated that daily nicotine treatment confers tolerance to some of the effects of nicotine, as well as cross-tolerance to other nAChR agonists. The current study assessed the extent to which antagonism of nicotine varies as a function of daily nicotine treatment. The rate-decreasing and hypothermic effects of nicotine,...

https://rxivist.org/papers/37521
https://doi.org/10.1101/482075

100816: Arbovirus emergence in temperate climates: the case of Cordoba, Argentina, 2009-2018

Michael A. Robert, Daniela Tatiana Tinunin et al.

203 downloads (posted 12 Apr 2019) epidemiology

The distribution of arbovirus disease transmission is expanding from the tropics and subtropics into temperate regions worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the emergence of arboviruses in the temperate city of Cordoba, Argentina (2009-2018), including dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and origins of imported cases. The first cases of dengue fever were reported in 2009, followed by outbreaks in 2013, 2015, and 2016, each outbreak having greater incidence than the previous. DENV1 was the predominant serotype. ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/48430
https://doi.org/10.1101/602003

100817: Evolutionary successful strategies in a transparent iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

Anton M. Unakafov, Thomas Schultze et al.

203 downloads (posted 01 Feb 2019) evolutionary biology

A Transparent game is a game-theoretic setting that takes action visibility into account. In each round, depending on the relative timing of their actions, players have a certain probability to see their partner's choice before making their own decision. This probability is determined by the level of transparency. At the two extremes, a game with zero transparency is equivalent to the classical simultaneous game, and a game with maximal transparency corresponds to a sequential game. Despite the prevalence of intermediat...

https://rxivist.org/papers/43030
https://doi.org/10.1101/524348

100818: Automated nuclear cartography reveals conserved sperm chromosome territory localization across 2 million years of mouse evolution

Benjamin Matthew Skinner, Joanne Bacon et al.

203 downloads (posted 31 Dec 2018) genomics

Measurements of nuclear organization in asymmetric nuclei in 2D images have traditionally been manual. This is exemplified by attempts to measure chromosome position in sperm samples, typically by dividing the nucleus into zones, and manually scoring which zone a FISH signal lies in. This is time consuming, limiting the number of nuclei that can be analyzed, and prone to subjectivity. We have developed a new approach for automated mapping of FISH signals in asymmetric nuclei, integrated into an existing image analysis t...

https://rxivist.org/papers/40729
https://doi.org/10.1101/508770

100819: Obtaining leaner deep neural networks for decoding brain functional connectome in a single shot

Sukrit Gupta, Yi Hao Chan et al.

203 downloads (posted 24 Apr 2020) bioinformatics

Neuroscientific knowledge points to the presence of redundancy in the correlations of brain's functional activity. These redundancies can be removed to mitigate the problem of overfitting when deep neural network (DNN) models are used to classify neuroimaging datasets. We propose an algorithm that removes insignificant nodes of DNNs in a layerwise manner and then adds a subset of correlated features in a single shot. When performing experiments with functional MRI datasets for classifying patients from healthy controls,...

https://rxivist.org/papers/80968
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.22.056382

100820: Higher-order thalamic implication in the processing of bilateral sensory events

Carlos Castejon, Angel Nuñez

203 downloads (posted 03 May 2020) neuroscience

In the rodent whisker system, it is well assumed that VPM and POm encode stimulations of the contralateral whisker pad. However, during tactile exploration whiskers are usually stimulated bilaterally. Accordingly, the integration of tactile information from the two sides of the body seems to be fundamental in the processing of these events. Here, to investigate whether POm could be able to codify these bilateral dynamics, whisker-evoked responses in this thalamic nucleus were examined by in vivo extracellular recordings...

https://rxivist.org/papers/82076
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073098