Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 104,020 bioRxiv papers from 459,552 authors.
Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, since beginning of last month
101,082 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
3 downloads microbiology
There are viral, fungal, bacterial and trypanosomal pathogens that negatively impact the individual and superorganismal health of the western honey bee. One fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis, affects larvae and causes the disease chalkbrood. A previous genome analysis of As. apis revealed that its genome encodes for RNA interference genes, similar to other fungi and eukaryotes. Here, we examined whether As. apis-targeting double-stranded RNA species could disrupt the germination of As. apis. We observed that when spores were co-incubated with As. apis-targeting dsRNA, fewer spores were activated for germination, suggesting an uptake of exogenous genetic material at the very onset of germination and consequent damage to essential transcripts needed for germination. Overall, these results indicate that the causative agent of chalkbrood disease, As. apis, can be successfully targeted using an RNAi-based strategy.
3 downloads neuroscience
Kalirin-7 (Kal7) is a Rac1/RhoG GEF and multidomain scaffold localized to the postsynaptic density which plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. Behavioral and physiological phenotypes observed in the Kal7 knockout mouse are quite specific: genetics of breeding, growth, strength and coordination are normal; Kal7 knockout animals self-administer cocaine far more than normal mice, show exaggerated locomotor responses to cocaine, but lack changes in dendritic spine morphology seen in wildtype mice; Kal7 knockout mice have depressed surface expression of GluN2B receptor subunits and exhibit marked suppression of long-term potentiation and depression in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord; and Kal7 knockout mice have dramatically blunted perception of pain. To address the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms which are deranged by loss of Kal7, we administered intracellular blocking peptides to acutely change Kal7 function at the synapse, to determine if plasticity deficits in Kal7-/- mice are the product of developmental processes since conception, or could be detected on a much shorter time scale. We found that specific disruption of the interactions of Kal7 with PSD-95 or GluN2B resulted in significant suppression of long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Biochemical approaches indicated that Kal7 interacted with PSD-95 at multiple sites within Kal7.
3 downloads neuroscience
Much as humans acquire speech in early childhood, the zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata ) songbird learns to sing from an adult "tutor" during the first three months of life. Within a well-defined critical period (CP), juvenile zebra finches memorize a tutor song that will guide subsequent motor patterning. This sensory learning process is mediated by tutor experience-dependent neuroplasticity within the auditory forebrain. Here, we used longitudinal resting-state fMRI analyses to investigate whether tutor experience also modifies patterns of functional connectivity (FC) within the juvenile zebra finch brain. Eighteen male zebra finches (only males sing) were scanned before, during, and at the end of the CP, as well as at the young adult stage. Prior to the onset of the CP, birds were separated into rearing conditions: Normal (aviary-housed; N =5), Tutored (one adult male tutor and one adult female; N =7), and Isolate (two adult females, isolated from male song; N =6). Brain-wide voxel-wise analyses identified a single cluster overlapping the left caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of the auditory forebrain that showed developmentally decreasing FC strength in Isolates but stable or increasing FC in Normal and Tutored birds. Additionally, FC between left NCM and left dorsal cerebellum showed a parallel developmental difference. Developmental changes in left NCM FC strength statistically mediated condition-related differences in song stereotypy. These results extend previous reports of tutor experience-dependent plasticity in NCM at epigenetic, genomic, molecular, and cellular levels to the whole-brain functional network level by demonstrating that tutor experience also influences the development of NCM FC. Moreover, these results link NCM FC to the emergence of song stereotypy.
3 downloads evolutionary biology
Even though eukaryote health relies on beneficial symbionts, host defenses targeting pathogens create substantial obstacles for the establishment of these essential partnerships. To reveal mechanisms of symbiotic adaptation, we experimentally evolved ecologically distinct bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri through Euprymna scolopes squid light organs. Serial passaging of V. fischeri populations through squid hosts produced eight distinct mutations in the binK sensor kinase gene that conferred an exceptional selective advantage demonstrated through both empirical and theoretical analysis. Squid-adaptive binK alleles promoted colonization and immune evasion behavior which was mediated by symbiotic polysaccharide (Syp). binK variation also produced metabolic convergence with native symbionts, and altered quorum sensing and luminescence. Preexisting coordination of symbiosis traits facilitated an efficient solution where altered function of a regulator was the key to unlock multiple colonization barriers. These results identify a genetic basis for microbial adaptability and underscore the importance of hosts as selective agents that shape emergent symbiont populations.
3 downloads genomics
We present in this study the development and implementation of a database for alternative splicing atlas in livestock animals (ASlive.org). Alternative splicing is an important biological process whose precision must be tightly regulated during growth and development. Using publicly available RNASeq data sets across many tissues, cell types, and biological conditions totaling 28.6 tera bases, we built a database of alternative splicing events in five major livestock animal species (cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and chickens). The database contains many types of information on alternative splicing events, including basic information such as genomic locations, genes, and event types, quantitative measurements of alternative splicing in the form of percent spliced in (PSI), overlap with known DNA variants, as well as orthologous events across different lineage groups. This database, the first of its kind in livestock animals, will provide a useful exploratory tool to assist functional annotation of animal genomes.
3 downloads bioinformatics
Molecular clustering at the plasma membrane has long been identified as a key process and is associated with regulating signalling pathways across cell types. Recent advances in microscopy, in particular the rise of super-resolution, have allowed the experimental observation of nanoscale molecular clusters in the plasma membrane. However, modelling approaches capable of recapitulating these observations are in their infancy, partly because of the extremely complex array of biophysical factors which influence molecular distributions and dynamics in the plasma membrane. We propose here a highly abstracted approach: an agent-based model dedicated to the study of molecular aggregation at the plasma membrane. We show that when molecules are modelled as though they can act (diffuse) in a manner which is influenced by their molecular neighbourhood, many of the distributions observed in cells can be recapitulated, even though such sensing and response is not possible for real membrane molecules. As such, agent-based offers a unique platform which may lead to a new understanding of how molecular clustering in extremely complex molecular environments can be abstracted, simulated and interpreted using simple rules.
3 downloads neuroscience
Background: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder with high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability and language delay, and is caused by 22q13.3 deletions or mutations in the SHANK3 gene. To date, the molecular and pathway changes resulting from SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in PMS remain poorly understood. Uncovering these mechanisms is critical for understanding pathobiology of PMS and, ultimately, for the development of new therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of PMS by reprogramming peripheral blood samples from individuals with PMS (n=7) and their unaffected siblings (n=6). For each participant, up to three hiPSC clones were generated and differentiated into induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs; n=32) and induced forebrain neurons (iNeurons; n=42). Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was applied to explore transcriptional differences between PMS probands and unaffected siblings. Results: Transcriptome analyses identified 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in iNPCs and 82 DEGs in iNeurons, when comparing cells from PMS probands and unaffected siblings (FDR <5%). Genes under-expressed in PMS were implicated in Wnt signaling, embryonic development and protein translation, while over-expressed genes were enriched for pre- and post-synaptic density genes, regulation of synaptic plasticity, and G-protein-gated potassium channel activity. Gene co-expression network analysis identified two modules in iNeurons that were over-expressed in PMS, implicating postsynaptic signaling and GDP binding, and both modules harbored a significant enrichment of genetic risk loci for developmental delay and intellectual disability. Finally, PMS-associated genes were integrated with other ASD iPSC transcriptome findings and several points of convergence were identified, indicating altered Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix and glutamatergic synapses. Limitations: Given the rarity of the condition, we could not carry out experimental validation in independent biological samples. In addition, functional and morphological phenotypes caused by loss of SHANK3 were not characterized here. Conclusions: This is the largest human neural sample analyzed in PMS. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing in hiPSC-derived neural cells from individuals with PMS revealed both shared and distinct transcriptional signatures across iNPCs and iNeurons, including many genes implicated in risk for ASD, as well as specific neurobiological pathways, including the Wnt pathway.
3 downloads microbiology
Telacebec (Q203) is a new anti-tubercular drug with extremely potent activity against Mycobacterium ulcerans. Here, we explored the treatment-shortening potential of Q203 alone or in combination with rifampin in a mouse footpad infection model. The first study compared Q203 at 5 and 10 mg/kg doses alone and with rifampin. Q203 alone rendered most mouse footpads culture-negative in 2 weeks. Combining Q203 with rifampin resulted in relapse-free cure 24 weeks after completing 2 weeks of treatment, compared to a 25% relapse rate in the rifampin-clarithromycin control group treated for 4 weeks. The second study explored the dose-ranging activity of Q203 alone and with RIF, including the extended activity of Q203 after treatment discontinuation. The bactericidal activity of Q203 persisted for ≥ 4 weeks beyond the last dose. All mice receiving just 1 week of Q203 at 2 and 10 mg/kg were culture-negative 4 weeks after stopping treatment. Mice receiving 2 weeks of Q203 at 0.5, 2 and 10 mg/kg were culture-negative 4 weeks after treatment. Rifampin did not increase the activity of Q203. A pharmacokinetics sub-study revealed that Q203 doses of 2-10 mg/kg in mice produce plasma concentrations similar to those produced by 100-300 mg doses in humans, with no adverse effect of rifampin on Q203 concentrations. These results indicate the extraordinary potential of Q203 to reduce the duration of treatment necessary for cure to ≤ 1 week (or 5 doses of 2-10 mg/kg) in our mouse footpad infection model and warrant further evaluation in clinical trials.
3 downloads biochemistry
The ATP-dependent BAF chromatin remodeling complex plays a critical role in gene regulation by modulating chromatin architecture, and is frequently mutated in cancer. Indeed, subunits of the BAF complex are found to be mutated in >20% of human tumors. The mechanism by which BAF properly navigates chromatin is not fully understood, but is thought to involve a multivalent network of histone and DNA contacts. We previously identified a composite domain in the BRG1 ATPase subunit that is capable of associating with both histones and DNA in a multivalent manner. Mapping the DNA binding pocket revealed that it contains several cancer mutations. Here, we utilize SELEX-seq to identify the DNA specificity of this composite domain and NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling to determine the structural basis of DNA binding. Finally, we demonstrate that cancer mutations in this domain alter the mode of DNA association.
3 downloads plant biology
'Bairihua', a variety of the Catalpa bungei, has a large amount of flowers and a long flowering period which make it an excellent material for flowering researches in trees. SPL is one of the hub genes that regulate both flowering transition and development. Here, a SPL homologues CbuSPL9 was cloned using degenerate primers with RACE. Expression studies during flowering transition in Bairihua and ectopic expression in Arabidopsis showed that CbuSPL9 was functional similarly with its Arabidopsis homologues. In the next step, we used Y2H to identify the proteins that could interact with CbuSPL9. HMGA, an architectural transcriptional factor, was identified and cloned for further research. BiFC and BLI showed that CbuSPL9 could form a heterodimer with CbuHMGA in the nucleus. The expression analysis showed that CbuHMGA had a similar expression trend to that of CbuSPL9 during flowering in 'Bairihua'. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of CbuHMGA in Arabidopsis would lead to aberrant flowers, but did not effect flowering time. Taken together, our results implied a novel pathway that ChuSPL9 regulated flowering development, but not flowering transition, with the participation of ChuHMGA . Further investments need to be done to verify the details of this pathway.
3 downloads physiology
This manuscript was removed because it posted owing to a technical error
3 downloads bioinformatics
We present a quantitative analysis of small RNA dynamics during the transition from hPSCs to the three germ layer lineages to identify spatiotemporal-specific small RNAs that may be involved in hPSC differentiation. To determine the degree of spatiotemporal specificity, we utilized two algorithms, namely normalized maximum timepoint specificity index (NMTSI) and across-tissue specificity index (ASI). NMTSI could identify spatiotemporal-specific small RNAs that go up or down at just one timepoint in a specific lineage. ASI could identify spatiotemporal-specific small RNAs that maintain high expression from intermediate timepoints to the terminal timepoint in a specific lineage. Beyond analyzing single small RNAs, we also quantified the spatiotemporal-specificity of microRNA families and observed their differential expression patterns in certain lineages. To clarify the regulatory effects of group miRNAs on cellular events during lineage differentiation, we performed a gene ontology (GO) analysis on the downstream targets of synergistically up- and downregulated microRNAs. To provide an integrated interface for researchers to access and browse our analysis results, we designed a web-based tool at https://keyminer.pythonanywhere.com/km/.
3 downloads biophysics
Vital biological processes such as genome repair require fast and efficient binding of selected proteins to specific target sites on DNA. Here we propose an active target search mechanism based on "chromophoresis", the dynamics of DNA-binding proteins up or down gradients in the density of epigenetic marks, or colours (biochemical tags on the genome). We focus on a set of proteins that deposit marks from which they are repelled - a case which is only encountered away from thermodynamic equilibrium. For suitable ranges of kinetic parameter values, chromophoretic proteins can perform unidirectional motion and are optimally redistributed along the genome. Importantly, they can also locally unravel a region of the genome which is collapsed due to self-interactions and "dive" deep into its core, for a striking enhancement of the efficiency of target search on such an inaccessible substrate. We discuss the potential relevance of chromophoresis for DNA repair. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
3 downloads pathology
Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joints characterized by articular cartilage degradation. While there are clear sex differences in OA development in humans, most pre-clinical research has been conducted solely in male animals thus limiting the ability of these findings to be generalized to both sexes in the context of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine if sex impacts the progression and severity of OA in the rat medial meniscal tear (MMT) preclinical animal model used to surgically induce OA. It was hypothesized that differences would be observed between males and females following MMT surgery. Design: A MMT model was employed in male and female Lewis rats to induce OA. Animals were euthanized 3 weeks post-surgery and EPIC-μCT was used to quantitatively evaluate articular cartilage structure and composition, osteophyte volumes and subchondral bone structure. Results: Quantitative analysis of the medial 1/3 articular cartilage via EPIC-μCT showed increased cartilage thickness and proteoglycan loss in the MMT of both sexes, when compared to sham. Additionally, both male and female animals in the MMT group had increased subchondral bone mineral density and larger total osteophyte volumes due to MMT. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that OA can be induced in both sexes using the rat MMT model. Moving forward, adding sex as a factor in preclinical OA studies should be standard practice in pre-clinical studies in order to elucidate more inclusive and translatable results into the clinic.
3 downloads neuroscience
Are degree distributions of human brain functional connectivity networks heavy-tailed? Initial claims based on least-square fitting suggested that brain functional connectivity networks obey power law scaling in their degree distributions. This interpretation has been challenged on methodological grounds. Subsequently, estimators based on maximum-likelihood and non-parametric tests involving surrogate data have been proposed. No clear consensus has emerged as results especially depended on data resolution. To identify the underlying topological distribution of brain functional connectivity calls for a closer examination of the relationship between resolution and statistics of model fitting. In this study, we analyze high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from the Human Connectome Project to assess its degree distribution across resolutions. We consider resolutions from one thousand to eighty thousand regions of interest (ROIs) and test whether they follow a heavy or short-tailed distribution. We analyze power law, exponential, truncated power law, log-normal, Weibull and generalized Pareto probability distributions. Notably, the Generalized Pareto distribution is of particular interest since it interpolates between heavy-tailed and short-tailed distributions, and it provides a handle on estimating the tail's heaviness or shortness directly from the data. Our results show that the statistics support the short-tailed limit of the generalized Pareto distribution, rather than a power law or any other heavy-tailed distribution. Working across resolutions of the data and performing cross-model comparisons, we further establish the overall robustness of the generalized Pareto model in explaining the data. Moreover, we account for earlier ambiguities by showing that down-sampling the data systematically affects statistical results. At lower resolutions models cannot easily be differentiated on statistical grounds while their plausibility consistently increases up to an upper bound. Indeed, more power law distributions are reported at low resolutions (5K) than at higher ones (50K or 80K). However, we show that these positive identifications at low resolutions fail cross-model comparisons and that down-sampling data introduces the risk of detecting spurious heavy-tailed distributions. This dependence of the statistics of degree distributions on sampling resolution has broader implications for neuroinformatic methodology, especially, when several analyses rely on down-sampled data, for instance, due to a choice of anatomical parcellations or measurement technique. Our findings that node degrees of human brain functional networks follow a short-tailed distribution have important implications for claims of brain organization and function. Our findings do not support common simplistic representations of the brain as a generic complex system with optimally efficient architecture and function, modeled with simple growth mechanisms. Instead these findings reflect a more nuanced picture of a biological system that has been shaped by longstanding and pervasive developmental and architectural constraints, including wiring-cost constraints on the centrality architecture of individual nodes.
3 downloads synthetic biology
Robustness to temperature variation is an important specification for biomolecular circuit design. While cancellation of parametric temperature dependences has been shown to improve temperature robustness of period in a synthetic oscillator design, the performance of other biomolecular circuit designs in different temperature conditions is relatively unclear. Using a combination of experimental measurements and mathematical models, we assess the temperature robustness of two biomolecular circuit motifs \---| a negative feedback loop and a feedforward loop. We find that the measured responses in both circuits can change with temperature, both in the amplitude and in the transient response. We find that, in addition to the cancellation of parametric temperature dependencies, certain parameter regimes can also facilitate temperature robustness for the negative feedback loop, although at a performance cost. We discuss these parameter regimes of operation in the context of the measured data for the negative feedback loop. These results should help develop a framework for assessing and designing temperature robustness in biomolecular circuits.
3 downloads microbiology
The most important lineage of Escherichia coli, named sequence type 131 (ST131) is a pandemic clone which drives the increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. While the pervasiveness of ST131 clade C, especially subclades C2 and C1-M27 has been demonstrated in numerous global surveys, no report about the ST131 clades and its virotypes has been published from Iran, so far. So, in this study we investigated and compared the virotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, resistance/ virulence determinants and clonality of ST131 clades collected during one-year surveillance study. Most of isolates belonged to clade C2 (34/76 [44.7%]), with the highest virulence factor (VF) scores and resistance rates. The distinctive profiles of clade C2 virulence genes were revealed by 'principle coordinates analysis' (PcoA) test. The distribution of hlyA/cnf1virulence genes among clade C2 was not uniform, so that positive strains showed significantly higher rates of resistance markers (blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, aac6Ib/Ib-cr and aac3IIa) and ampicillin-sulbactam/gentamicin/tobramycin resistance. Virotype C as the most common virotype (48.7%) was predominant among clade C1 population, while almost all of virotypes E and F [(22/23), 95.6%] strains belonged to clade C2, with the highest VF scores and aminoglycoside resistance rates. 'Multi locus variable Number tandem repeats analysis' (MLVA) clustered clades C1 and C2 together, while clades A and B strains were mostly identified as singletons. Appearance of virotypes E and F among clade C2 strains with higher rates of aminoglycoside resistance/virulence genes content demonstrate the shifting dynamics of this pandemic clone in response to antibiotic selection pressure by establishing the newly-emerged subsets.
3 downloads systems biology
Ageing affects a wide range of phenotypes at all scales, but an objective measure of ageing remains challenging, even in simple model organisms. We assumed that a wide range of phenotypes at the organismal scale rather than a limited number of biomarkers of ageing would best describe the ageing process. Hundreds of morphological, postural and behavioural features are extracted at once from high resolutions videos. A quantitative model using this multi-parametric dataset can predict the biological age and lifespan of individual C. elegans. We show that the quality of predictions on a held-out data set increases with the number of features added to the model, supporting our initial hypothesis. Despite the large diversity of ageing mechanisms, including stochastic insults, our results highlight a robust ageing trajectory, but variable ageing rates along that trajectory. We show that healthspan, which we defined as the range of abilities of the animals, is correlated to lifespan in wild-type worms.
3 downloads systems biology
The study presents an analysis of how different cellular functions link cell size to the expression of synthetic genes in E. coli. The Size-Expression interaction was mapped with a two-gene genetic probe across 3800 single-gene deletion strains. Through regression analysis, expression-specific effects and gene-specific effects were derived from size effects and generic expression effects, respectively. The entire compendium of cell functions broadly mapped to four systems of distinct primary influence on the Size-Expression map. Specifically, membrane structural components primarily affected size, whereas protein and RNA stability primarily affected gene expression. In addition, major Size-Expression shifts showed no substantial gene-specific effects unless they were mediated by key components of the protein synthesis apparatus.
3 downloads systems biology
Obesity is a pandemic disease with a critical increase in childhood. An important unanswered question is to understand if this disease is due to genetic causes or to the life-style of the subjects. To address this question, we have analyzed if monozygotic twins show the same robust transcriptomic signature (5σ, as for the Higgs Boson) that we have recently revealed in obese subjects. Our results show that our signature correlates with BMI in paired transcriptomes of monozygotic twins, suggesting that the signature does not reflect underlying genetic causes.
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