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Rxivist combines biology preprints from bioRxiv and medRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 128,741 papers from 551,614 authors.

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in category neuroscience

19,641 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.

19261: Toward asleep DBS: Cortico basal-ganglia neural activity during interleaved propofol/ketamine sedation mimics NREM/REM sleep activity
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Posted 15 Dec 2020

Toward asleep DBS: Cortico basal-ganglia neural activity during interleaved propofol/ketamine sedation mimics NREM/REM sleep activity
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Jing Guang, Halen Baker, Orilia Ben-Yishay Nizri, Shimon Firman, Uri Werner-Reiss, Vadim Kapuller, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently a standard long-term treatment for advanced motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). In an effort to enable DBS under sedation, asleep DBS, we characterized the cortico-basal ganglia neuronal network of two non-human primates under propofol, ketamine and interleaved propofol-ketamine (IPK) sedation. Further, we compared these sedation states in the healthy and Parkinsonian condition to those of healthy sleep. Ketamine increases high frequency power and synchronization while propofol increases low frequency power and synchronization in polysomnography and neuronal activity recordings. Thus, ketamine does not mask the low frequency oscillations used for physiological navigation toward basal ganglia DBS targets. The brain state under ketamine and propofol mimicked rapid eye movement (REM) and Non-REM (NREM) sleep activity, respectively, and the IPK protocol imitates the NREM-REM sleep cycle. These promising results are the first step towards asleep DBS with non-distorted physiological navigation.

19262: Increased theta/alpha synchrony in the habenula-prefrontal network with negative emotional stimuli in human patients
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Posted 01 Jan 2021

Increased theta/alpha synchrony in the habenula-prefrontal network with negative emotional stimuli in human patients
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Yongzhi Huang, Bomin Sun, Jean Debarros, Chao Zhang, Shikun Zhan, Dianyou Li, Chencheng Zhang, Tao Wang, Peng Huang, Yijie Lai, Peter Brown, Chunyan Cao, Huiling Tan

Lateral habenula is believed to encode negative motivational stimuli and plays key roles in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, how habenula activities are modulated during the perception and processing of emotional information is still poorly understood. We recorded local field potentials from bilateral habenula areas with simultaneous cortical magnetoencephalography in nine patients with psychiatric disorders during an emotional picture viewing task. Oscillatory activity in the theta/alpha band (5-10 Hz) within the habenula and prefrontal cortical regions, as well as the coupling between these structures, are increased during the perception and processing of negative emotional stimuli compared to positive emotional stimuli. The evoked increase in theta/alpha band synchronization in the frontal cortex-habenula network correlated with the emotional valence not the arousal score of the stimuli. These results provide direct evidence for increased theta/alpha synchrony within the habenula area and prefrontal cortex-habenula network in the perception of negative emotion in human participants.

19263: Altered functional brain dynamics in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome during facial affect processing
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Posted 17 Dec 2020

Altered functional brain dynamics in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome during facial affect processing
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Eli J. Cornblath, Arun S Mahadevan, Xiaosong He, Kosha Ruparel, David M. Lydon-Staley, Tyler M. Moore, Ruben C. Gur, Elaine H. Zackai, Beverly Emanuel, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, David R. Roalf, Raquel E. Gur, Danielle S Bassett

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a multisystem disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, variable medical features, and neurodevelopmental differences resulting in diverse psychiatric phenotypes, including marked deficits in facial memory and social cognition. Neuroimaging in individuals with 22q11.2DS has revealed differences relative to matched controls in BOLD fMRI activation during facial affect processing tasks, but time-varying interactions between brain areas during facial affect processing have not yet been studied in 22q11.2DS. We applied constrained principal component analysis to identify temporally overlapping brain activation patterns from BOLD fMRI data acquired during an emotion identification task from 58 individuals with 22q11.2DS and 58 age-, race-, and sex-matched healthy controls. Delayed frontal-motor feedback signals were diminished in individuals with 22q11.2DS, as were delayed emotional memory signals engaging amygdala, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Early task-related engagement of motor and visual cortices and salience-related insular activation were relatively preserved in 22q11.2DS. Insular activation was associated with task performance within the 22q11.2DS sample. Differences in cortical surface area, but not cortical thickness, showed spatial alignment with an activation pattern associated with face processing. These findings suggest that relative to matched controls, primary visual processing and insular function are relatively intact in individuals with 22q11.22DS, while motor feedback, face processing, and emotional memory processes are more affected. Such insights may help inform potential interventional targets and enhance the specificity of neuroimaging indices of cognitive dysfunction in 22q11.2DS.

19264: The problem of perfect predictors in statistical spike train models
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Posted 23 Dec 2020

The problem of perfect predictors in statistical spike train models
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Sahand Farhoodi, Uri Eden

Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) have been used extensively in statistical models of spike train data. However, the IRLS algorithm, which is often used to fit such models, can fail to converge in situations where response and non-response can be separated by a single predictor or a linear combination of multiple predictors. Such situations are likely to arise in many neural systems due to properties such as refractoriness and incomplete sampling of the signals that influence spiking. In this paper, we describe multiple classes of approaches to address this problem: Standard IRLS with a fixed iteration limit, computing the maximum likelihood solution in the limit, Bayesian estimation, regularization, change of basis, and modifying the search parameters. We demonstrate a specific application of each of these methods to spiking data from rat somatosensory cortex and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. We also provide an example of a roadmap for selecting a method based on the problems particular analysis issues and scientific goals.

19265: Medial septum neurokinin- and somatostatin-sensitive mechanisms mediate sensorimotor and nociceptive behaviours
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Posted 28 Oct 2020

Medial septum neurokinin- and somatostatin-sensitive mechanisms mediate sensorimotor and nociceptive behaviours
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Si Yun Ng, Andy Thiam-Huat Lee, Mohammed Zacky Ariffin, Pei Jun Woon, Terence Sheng Hao Chng, Sanjay Khanna

The forebrain medial septum (MS), implicated in affective-motivational behaviours, is enriched in substance P (SP) sensitive neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) and somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTR) that are located almost exclusively on cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively. However, the physiological function of these receptors is poorly understood. This study characterized the actions of intraseptal SP on electrophysiological indices of septo-hippocampal activation, then utilised NK1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060, and SST to investigate the physiological role of endogenous neurotransmission at NK1R, and SST-sensitive mechanisms, in novel open field and formalin test of inflammatory pain. The findings showed that neurotransmission at NK1R mediates formalin-induced electrophysiological responses in the septo-hippocampus in anaesthetized and behaving animals. Furthermore, parallel NK1R- and SST-sensitive mechanisms affect different aspects of animal behaviours in both tests, collectively modulating attention and habituation in open field and driving formalin-induced nociception. This brings out a newer peptidergic dimension of septal physiology in nociception. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19266: Oculomotor Target Selection is Cortically Mediated by Complex Objects
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Posted 10 Aug 2020

Oculomotor Target Selection is Cortically Mediated by Complex Objects
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Devin H. Kehoe, Jennifer Lewis, Mazyar Fallah

Successful oculomotor target selection often requires discriminating visual features but it remains contentious whether oculomotor substrates encoding saccade vectors functionally contribute to this process. One possibility is that visual features are discriminated cortically and oculomotor modules select the object with the highest activation in the set of all preprocessed cortical object representations, while an alternative possibility is that oculomotor modules actively discriminate potential targets based on visual features. If the latter view is correct, these modules should not require input from specialized visual cortices encoding the task relevant features. We therefore examined whether the latency of visual onset responses elicited by abrupt distractor onsets is consistent with input from specialized visual cortices by non-invasively measuring human saccade metrics (saccade curvature, endpoint deviations, saccade frequency, error proportion) as a function of distractor processing time for novel, visually complex distractors that had to be discriminated from a target to guide saccades. Visual onset response latencies were ~110 ms, consistent with projections from anterior cortical sites specialized for object processing. Surprisingly, oculomotor visual onset responses encoded features, as we manipulated the visual similarity between targets and distractors and observed an increased visual onset response magnitude and duration when the distractor was highly similar to the target, which was not attributable to an inhibitory processing delay. Visual onset responses were dynamically modulated by executive function, as these responses were anticipatorily extinguished over the time course of the experiment. As expected, the latency of distractor-related inhibition was modulated by the behavioral relevance of the distractor. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19267: Mu oscillations and motor imagery performance: A reflection of success, not ability
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Posted 22 Sep 2020

Mu oscillations and motor imagery performance: A reflection of success, not ability
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Yvonne Y Chen, Kathryn Lambert, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal

Motor imagery, or our ability to imagine movement without actually engaging in the action, has been an increasingly popular tool in rehabilitation settings. Understanding its neural underpinning is crucial for further development of new interventions. Using scalp electroencephalography (EEG), many studies have shown that mu oscillations (8-13 Hz), a variant of the alpha band recorded over the motor cortex electrodes, are involved in both the imagination and performance of movements; however, the exact relationship between mu oscillations and motor imagery is unclear. To further our understanding of the functional significance of mu oscillations and their role in both motor learning and motor performance, our study sought to investigate how suppression in mu oscillations varies during a motor imagery task according to both within subject imagery success and between subject imagery ability. We examined EEG activity while a large sample of participants performed an objective test of motor imagery ability (Test of Ability in Movement Imagery, TAMI). Results demonstrated that mu oscillatory activity significantly decreased during successful imagery trials as compared to unsuccessful ones. However, the extent of reduction in mu oscillations did not correlate with individual imagery ability. These results provide further support for the involvement of mu oscillations in motor behaviours and indicate that suppression in mu oscillations may serve as an important index for determining successful motor imagery performance within an individual. The processes that underlie this success are likely similar to those that underlie successful motor execution, given motor imagery’s proposed functional equivalence to motor imagery. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19268: The stage specific plasticity of descending modulatory controls in a rodent model of cancer induced bone pain
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Posted 01 Oct 2020

The stage specific plasticity of descending modulatory controls in a rodent model of cancer induced bone pain
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Mateusz Wojciech Kucharczyk, Diane Derrien, Anthony Henry Dickenson, Kirsty Bannister

Pain resulting from metastatic bone disease is a major unmet clinical need. Studying spinal processing in rodent models of cancer pain is desirable since the percept of pain is influenced in part by modulation at the level of the transmission system in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Here a rodent model of cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) was generated following syngenic rat mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell injection in the tibia of male Sprague Dawley rats. Disease progression was classified as ‘early’ or ‘late’ stage according to bone destruction. Even though wakeful CIBP rats showed progressive mechanical hypersensitivity, subsequent in vivo electrophysiological measurement of mechanically evoked deep dorsal horn spinal neuronal responses revealed no change. Rather, a dynamic reorganization of spinal neuronal modulation by descending controls was observed, and this was maladaptive only in the early stage of CIBP. Interestingly, this latter observation corresponded with the degree of damage to the primary afferents innervating the cancerous tissue. Plasticity in the modulation of spinal neuronal activity by descending control pathways reveals a novel opportunity for targeting CIBP in a stage-specific manner. Finally, the data herein has translational potential since the descending control pathways measured are present also in man. Simple Summary The mechanisms that underlie pain resulting from metastatic bone disease remain elusive. This translates to a clinical and socioeconomic burden; targeted therapy is not possible, and patients do not receive adequate analgesic relief. Complicating matters is the heterogeneous nature of metastatic bone disease. Early stage cancers are molecularly very different to their late stage counterparts and so too is the pain associated with infant and advanced tumours. Thus, analgesic approaches should differ according to disease stage. In this article we demonstrate that a unique form of brain inhibitory control responsible for modulation of incoming pain signals at the level of the spinal cord changes with the progression of bone tumours, This corresponds with the degree of damage to the primary afferents innervating the cancerous tissue. Plasticity in the modulation of spinal neuronal activity by descending control pathways reveals a novel opportunity for targeting bone cancer pain in a stage-specific manner. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19269: Environmental enrichment reverses memory impairment in Β3-ARKO mice
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Posted 04 Aug 2020

Environmental enrichment reverses memory impairment in Β3-ARKO mice
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Thais Terpins Ravache, Gabriela G. Nunes, Alice Batistuzzo, Fernanda B. Lorena, Bruna P. P. do Nascimento, Martha Bernardi, Miriam O. Ribeiro

Norepinephrine plays an important role in modulating the processes of memory consolidation and evocation through its beta-adrenergic receptors (Adrβ), which are expressed in the hippocampus and amygdala. Several studies have shown that all three subtypes of Adrβ (β1, β2 and β3) play an important role in cognition. Environmental enrichment (EE), a technique initially used to decrease the stress of animals held in captive environments, has also been shown to produce cognitive benefits in both healthy and sick animals. In this study, we hypothesized that EE would reverse the memory impairment induced by the absence or Adrβ3. To test this, 21- and 86-day- old Adrβ3KO mice were exposed to an EE protocol for 8 weeks. The study showed that the EE protocol is able to correct the memory impairment when applied to Adrβ3KO animals immediately after weaning but has no effect when applied to adult animals. We also found that aging worsens the memory of Adrβ3KO mice. Our results suggest that a richer and more diverse environment helps to correct memory impairment in Adrβ3KO animals. They also reinforce the idea that noradrenergic signaling is involved in the cognitive impairment observed late in life, as aging led to a worsening in the memory of the Adrβ3KO animals that was not corrected by the environmental enrichment protocol. Key words: noradrenaline, cognitive benefits, memory, aging ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19270: Age-related differences in network structure and dynamic synchrony of cognitive control
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Posted 10 Oct 2020

Age-related differences in network structure and dynamic synchrony of cognitive control
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

T. Hinault, M. Mijalkov, J.B. Pereira, Giovanni Volpe, A. Bakker, S.M. Courtney

Cognitive trajectories vary greatly across older individuals, and the neural mechanisms underlying these differences remain poorly understood. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework of cognitive variability in older adults, linking the influence of white matter microstructure on fast and effective communications between brain regions. Using diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography, we show that individual differences in white matter network organization are associated with network clustering and efficiency in the alpha and high-gamma bands, and that functional network dynamics partly explain individual cognitive control performance in older adults. We show that older individuals with high versus low structural network clustering differ in task-related network dynamics and cognitive performance. These findings were corroborated by investigating magnetoencephalography networks in an independent dataset. This multimodal brain connectivity framework of individual differences provides a holistic account of how differences in white matter microstructure underlie age-related variability in dynamic network organization and cognitive performance. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19271: Cell type specific information transfer for sparse coding
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Posted 08 Nov 2020

Cell type specific information transfer for sparse coding
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Fleur Zeldenrust, Niccolo Calcini, Xuan Yan, Ate Bijlsma, Tansu Celikel

Sensory neurons reconstruct the world from action potentials (spikes) impinging on them. Recent work argues that the formation of sensory representations are cell-type specific, as excitatory and inhibitory neurons use complementary information available in spike trains to represent sensory stimuli. Here, by measuring the mutual information between synaptic input and spike trains, we show that inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex transfer information differently: excitatory neurons show strong threshold adaptation and a reduction of intracellular information transfer with increasing firing rates. Inhibitory neurons, on the other hand, show threshold behaviour that facilitates broadband information transfer. We propose that cell-type specific intracellular information transfer is the rate-limiting step for neuronal communication across synaptically coupled networks. Ultimately, at high firing rates, the reduction of information transfer by excitatory neurons and its facilitation by inhibitory neurons together provides a mechanism for sparse coding and information compression in cortical networks.

19272: Sodium valproate protects against neuronal ferroptosis in epilepsy via suppressing lysyl oxidase
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Posted 01 Jun 2020

Sodium valproate protects against neuronal ferroptosis in epilepsy via suppressing lysyl oxidase
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Qin Li, Qiu-Qi Li, Ji-Ning Jia, Zhao-Qian Liu, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Lin Jin, Xiao-Yuan Mao

Background and purpose: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that is characterized by repetitive seizures. Seizures-related complications such as cognitive deficits, anxiety and sleep disorders seriously impact the life quality of patients. Antiepileptic drugs are widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Sodium valproate is served as the first-line antiepileptic drugs and possesses various pharmacological effects on the brain. Sodium valproate exerts neuroprotective effects in acute nervous system diseases such as ischemic brain damage by inhibiting oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of neuroprotection of sodium valproate in epilepsy is unclear. Lysyl oxidase (Lox) is a monoamine oxidase that acts on extracellular matrix collagen and elastin and it can promote accumulation of oxidative stress. Our previous studies have confirmed that Lox is involved in ferroptosis, a novel iron-dependent and lipid peroxidation-mediated cell death pathway, during epilepsy. In this study, we would like to investigate whether sodium valproate can exert neuroprotective effects on kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures by inhibiting Lox-mediated ferroptosis. Methods: Epileptic mouse models were established by intracranial injection of 250 ng/μl kainic acid on right hippocampus. Sodium valproate and ferroptosis inhibitors were administrated by intraperitoneal injecting. The epileptic behavior of the mice within 4 hours was recorded after intracranial injection of kainic acid. Mouse hippocampus was acquired to analyze the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and the production of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In vitro, the protective effects of sodium valproate on glutamate-induced HT22 cell damage model was assessed by PI/Hoechst staining; The levels of PTGS2, 4-HNE and lipid ROS were analyzed by RT-qPCR, western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis the mRNA and protein expression of Lox in the glutamate-induced HT22 cell damage model. The Lox overexpression model was established by intracranial injection of AAV on right hippocampus. Results: Pretreatment with sodium valproate and ferroptosis inhibitors could significantly alleviate the epileptic seizures in the kainic acid induced epilepsy mouse model. Western blot and RT-qPCR results showed that sodium valproate and ferroptosis inhibitors significantly inhibited the levels of 4-HNE and PTGS2. PI/Hoechst staining showed that 1 mM sodium valproate exerted protective effect on glutamate-induced HT22 cell injury model. There was no significant difference observed between sodium valproate and ferroptosis inhibitors co-intervention group and sodium valproate intervention group on glutamate-induced cell injury model. And sodium valproate could significantly inhibit the production of lipid reactive oxygen species and 4-HNE. The expression of Lox was significantly increased in the glutamate-induced HT22 cell injury model, which could be reversed by pretreatment of sodium valproate. And β-aminopropionitrile (a specific inhibitor of Lox) could inhibit ferroptosis induced by glutamate, as well as ameliorate the epileptic seizures in the kainic acid induced epilepsy mouse model. Pretreatment with sodium valproate could not ameliorate the epileptic behavior in the Lox-overexpression mice. Western blot analysis showed that sodium valproate could not suppress the production of 4-HNE in kainic acid induced epileptic mice model. Conclusions: The neuroprotective effect of sodium valproate in epileptic seizures is closely related to the inhibition of ferroptosis. The inhibition of ferroptosis is involved in the neuroprotective effect of sodium valproate on glutamate-induced HT22 cell damage model. Sodium valproate may exert neuroprotective effects in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures by abrogating Lox-mediated ferroptosis. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19273: Quantitative assessment of the relationship between behavioral and autonomic dynamics during propofol-induced unconsciousness
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Posted 05 Nov 2020

Quantitative assessment of the relationship between behavioral and autonomic dynamics during propofol-induced unconsciousness
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Sandya Subramanian, Patrick L. Purdon, Riccardo Barbieri, Emery N. Brown

During general anesthesia, both behavioral and autonomic changes are caused by the administration of anesthetics such as propofol. Propofol produces unconsciousness by creating highly structured oscillations in brain circuits. The anesthetic also has autonomic effects due to its actions as a vasodilator and myocardial depressant. Understanding how autonomic dynamics change in relation to propofol-induced unconsciousness is an important scientific and clinical question since anesthesiologists often infer changes in level of unconsciousness from changes in autonomic dynamics. Therefore, we present a framework combining physiology-based statistical models that have been developed specifically for heart rate variability and electrodermal activity with a robust statistical tool to compare behavioral and multimodal autonomic changes before, during, and after propofol-induced unconsciousness. We tested this framework on physiological data recorded from nine healthy volunteers during computer-controlled administration of propofol. We studied how autonomic dynamics related to behavioral markers of unconsciousness: 1) overall, 2) during the transitions of loss and recovery of consciousness, and 3) before and after anesthesia as a whole. Our results show a strong relationship between behavioral state of consciousness and autonomic dynamics. All of our prediction models showed areas under the curve greater than 0.75 despite the presence of non-monotonic relationships among the variables during the transition periods. Our analysis highlighted the specific roles played by fast versus slow changes, parasympathetic vs sympathetic activity, heart rate variability vs electrodermal activity, and even pulse rate vs pulse amplitude information within electrodermal activity. Further advancement upon this work can quantify the complex and subject-specific relationship between behavioral changes and autonomic dynamics before, during, and after anesthesia. However, this work demonstrates the potential of a multimodal, physiologically-informed, statistical approach to characterize autonomic dynamics. ### Competing Interest Statement A patent application was filed with S.S., R.B., and E.N.B. on July 15, 2020 (PCT/US2020/042031).

19274: Increased Excitability and Heightened Magnitude of Long-term Potentiation at Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Synapses in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hyperoxia Exposure
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Posted 15 Sep 2020

Increased Excitability and Heightened Magnitude of Long-term Potentiation at Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Synapses in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hyperoxia Exposure
74 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Manimaran Ramani, Kiara Miller, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Lori L McMahon

Preterm infants exposed to supraphysiological oxygen (hyperoxia) during the neonatal period have hippocampal atrophy and cognitive dysfunction later in childhood and as adolescents. Previously, we reported that 14-week-old adult mice exposed to hyperoxia as newborns had spatial memory deficits and hippocampal shrinkage, findings that mirror those of adolescents who were born preterm. Area CA1 region of the hippocampus that is crucial for spatial learning and memory is highly vulnerable to oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the long-term impact of neonatal hyperoxia exposure on hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic function. Male and female C57BL/6J mouse pups were continuously exposed to either 85% normobaric oxygen or air between postnatal days 2-14. Hippocampal slice electrophysiology at CA3-CA1 synapses was then performed at 14 weeks of age. We observed that hyperoxia exposed mice have heightened strength of basal synaptic transmission measured in input-output curves, increased fiber volley amplitude indicating increased axonal excitability, and heightened LTP magnitude at CA3-CA1 synapses, likely a consequence of increased postsynaptic depolarization during the tetanus. These data demonstrate that supraphysiological oxygen exposure during the critical neonatal developmental period leads to pathologically heightened CA3-CA1 synaptic function during early adulthood which may contribute to hippocampal shrinkage and learning and memory deficits we previously reported. Furthermore, these changes may account for cognitive disorders in children born preterm who were exposed to prolonged oxygen supplementation. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19275: Sex-specific maturational trajectory of endocannabinoid plasticity in the rat prefrontal cortex
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Posted 10 Oct 2020

Sex-specific maturational trajectory of endocannabinoid plasticity in the rat prefrontal cortex
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Axel Bernabeu, Anissa Bara, Antonia Manduca, Milene Borsoi, Olivier Lassalle, Anne-Laure Pelissier-Alicot, Olivier JJ Manzoni

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) develops until early adulthood in rodents and humans, but how synaptic plasticity evolves throughout postnatal development is not known. Here, we used a cross-sectional approach to establish the postnatal maturational trajectories of intrinsic properties and synaptic plasticity in the PFC of rats of both sexes. We found that while layer 5 PFC pyramidal neurons from rats of both sexes displayed similar current-voltage relationships, rheobases and resting potentials across all age groups, excitability was lower in female adults compared to the other developmental stages. NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation and mGluR2/3-mediated long-term depression (LTD) were equally expressed at the juvenile, pubescent and adult developmental stages in animals of both sexes. However, the developmental course of endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated LTD was sexually dimorphic. First, eCB-LTD emerged during the juvenile period in females. However, although CB1Rs were functional in both sexes at all developmental stages, eCB-LTD first emerged during pubescence in male. Second, eCB-LTD engaged distinct receptors in males and females depending on their developmental stages. Female rats employ both CB1R and TRPV1R to produce eCB-LTD at the juvenile stage but solely CB1R at pubescence followed by only TRPV1R at adulthood. In contrast, in pubescent and adult males eCB-LTD always and exclusively depended on CB1R. Pharmacological blockade of 2AG principal degrading enzyme allowed incompetent male juvenile synapses to express eCB-LTD. The data reveal different maturational trajectories in the PFC of male and female rats and provide new cellular substrates to the sex-specific behavioral and synaptic abnormalities caused by adolescent exposure to cannabinoids. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19276: Pre-attentive processing of neutral and emotional sounds in congenital amusia
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Posted 05 Aug 2020

Pre-attentive processing of neutral and emotional sounds in congenital amusia
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Agathe Pralus, Marie Gomot, Jackson Graves, Fanny Cholvy, Lesly Fornoni, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin

Congenital amusia is a life-long deficit of musical processing. This deficit can extend to the processing of language and in particular, emotional prosody. In a previous behavioral study, we revealed that while amusic individuals had difficulties in explicitly recognizing emotions for short vowels, they rated the emotional intensity of these same vowels as did their matched control participants. This finding led to the hypothesis that congenital amusics might be impaired for explicit emotional prosody recognition, but not for its implicit processing. With the aim to investigate amusics automatic processing of prosody, the present study measured electroencephalography (EEG) when participants listened passively to vowels presented within an oddball paradigm. Emotionally neutral vowel served as the standard and either emotional (anger and sadness) or neutral vowels as deviants. Evoked potentials were compared between participants with congenital amusia and control participants matched in age, education, and musical training. The MMN was rather preserved for all deviants in amusia, whereas an earlier negative component was found decreased in amplitude in amusics compared to controls for the neutral and sadness deviants. For the most salient deviant (anger), the P3a was decreased in amplitude for amusics compared to controls. These results showed some preserved automatic detection of emotional deviance in amusia despite an early deficit to process subtle acoustic changes. In addition, the automatic attentional shift in response to salient deviants at later processing stages was reduced in amusics in comparison to the controls. In the three ERPs related to the deviance, between-group differences were larger over bilateral prefrontal areas, previously shown to display functional impairments in congenital amusia. Our present study thus provides further understanding of the dichotomy between implicit and explicit processing in congenital amusia, in particular for vocal stimuli with emotional content. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19277: Singing-related reorganization of the song motor circuit is accompanied by a shift in hormonal modulation of song
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Posted 31 Aug 2020

Singing-related reorganization of the song motor circuit is accompanied by a shift in hormonal modulation of song
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Mariana D. Rocha, Jes Dreier, Jonathan Brewer, Manfred Gahr, Michiel Vellema

Sex hormones are essential modulators of birdsong. Testosterone, and its active androgenic and estrogenic metabolites, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, can re-shape the brain circuits responsible for song learning and production. The differential mechanisms of action of these different hormones during song development and song maintenance are, nonetheless, not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that unlike testosterone, DHT treatment does not induce singing behavior in naïve adult female canaries that have never previously produced song. However, in birds with previous testosterone-induced singing experience, DHT alone is enough to promote the re-acquisition of high quality songs, even after months of silence. In addition, we show that the synaptic reorganization that accompanies vocal motor skill development requires more than DHT-induced androgen receptor activation. These results indicate that vocal motor practice will persistently modify the hormone-sensitive brain circuit responsible for song production, suggesting a mechanistic differentiation in the hormone-dependent regulation of the initial vocal motor skill acquisition and later re-acquisition. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

19278: Automatic Integration of Gender Information during Phrase Processing: ERP Evidence
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Posted 16 Jul 2020

Automatic Integration of Gender Information during Phrase Processing: ERP Evidence
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Maria Alekseeva, Andriy Myachykov, Beatriz Bermudez Margaretto, Yury Shtyrov

Both linguistic (e.g., words, syntax) and extralinguistic (e.g., voice quality) information needs to be considered by interlocutors during linguistic communication. The effects of extralinguistic information on neural sentence processing are particularly poorly understood. Here, we used EEG and passive non-attend design with visual distraction in order to investigate how extralinguistic information affects brain activity during syntactic processing. We collected ERPs while participants listened to Russian pronoun-verb phrases recorded in either male or female voice. We manipulated congruency between the grammatical gender signaled by the verb’s ending and the speaker’s apparent gender. We registered both early and late phrase processing signatures in the incongruent conditions including ELAN (peaking at ~150 ms) and N400. Our data suggest a high degree of automaticity in integrating extralinguistic information during syntactic processing indicating existence of a rapid automatic syntactic integration mechanism sensitive to both linguistic and extralinguistic information.

19279: Enteric glial cells respond to a dietary change in the lamina propria in a MyD88-dependent manner
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Posted 23 Nov 2020

Enteric glial cells respond to a dietary change in the lamina propria in a MyD88-dependent manner
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Zhuanzhuan Liu, Hongxiang Sun, Ming Liang, Jing Gao, Liyuan Meng, Xingping Zheng, Yanxia Wei, Yanbo Kou, Yugang Wang

Immune and nervous system sensing are two important ways of detecting inner and outer environmental changes. Immune cell activation in the gut can promote metabolic disorders. However, whether enteric nervous system sensing and activities are also important in metabolic syndromes is not clear. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are thought to have sensing ability, but little is known about the potential connections between EGC and metabolic disorders. Consuming a modern Western-type high-fat low-fiber diet increases the risk of obesity. Here, we reported that a dietary shift from a normal chow diet to a high-fat diet in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice induced a transient emergence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive EGC network in the ileal lamina propria, accompanied by an increase of glial-derived neurotrophic factors production. Inhibition of EGC metabolic activity via gliotoxin fluorocitrate or glial-intrinsic deletion of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) in mice blocked this dietary change-induced activity. Furthermore, we found a different role of MYD88 in glial cells versus adipocyte in diet-induced obesity. The glial Myd88 knockout mice gained less body weight after HFD feeding compared to the littermate controls. In contrast, adipocyte deletion of Myd88 in mice had no impact on the weight gain but had exacerbated glucose metabolic disorders. Pharmacological interventions of glial activities by fluorocitrate prevented body weight gain in a dietary type- and glial MYD88-independent manner. Collectively, our data reveal a previously unappreciated function of EGC in sensing a dietary shift-induced perturbation and glial activities as a whole may play roles in diet-induced obesity.

19280: Visuomotor Activation of Inhibition-Processing in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Magnetoencephalography Study
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Posted 24 Nov 2020

Visuomotor Activation of Inhibition-Processing in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Magnetoencephalography Study
73 downloads bioRxiv neuroscience

Eman Nishat, Colleen Dockstader, Anne L Wheeler, Thomas Tan, John A.E. Anderson, Sandra Mendlowitz, Donald J Mabbott, Paul D Arnold, Stephanie H Ameis

Background: The ability to inhibit a response is a component of executive control that is impaired in many individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and may contribute to clinical symptoms. This study explored whether neural processing during response inhibition, measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG), differed in a sample of medication-naive youth with OCD, compared to typically developing controls (TDC). Methods: Data was acquired from 20 medication-naive children and youth with OCD (11.9 {+/-} 2.1 SD years) and 14 TDC (12.3 {+/-} 2.1 SD years). MEG was used to localize and characterize neural activity during a Go/No-Go task. Regional differences in amplitude of activity during a Go and No-Go condition between OCD versus TDC were examined. Results: In response to the visual cue presented during the Go condition, participants with OCD showed significantly increased amplitude of activity in the primary motor (MI) cortex compared to TDC. A trend towards decreased amplitude of activity in the orbitofrontal cortex in OCD versus TDC was also found during stop errors in the No-Go condition. Conclusion: Our preliminary study in a small medication-naive sample suggests that neural response within motor and orbitofrontal regions may be altered during Go/No-Go Task performance, and that MEG as an imaging tool may be sensitive to detecting such differences.

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