Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 62,963 bioRxiv papers from 279,321 authors.
Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, all time
in category neuroscience
10,948 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
8,770 downloads neuroscience
Arpiar Saunders, Evan Macosko, Alec Wysoker, Melissa Goldman, Fenna Krienen, Heather de Rivera, Elizabeth Bien, Matthew Baum, Shuyu Wang, Aleks Goeva, James Nemesh, Nolan Kamitaki, Sara Brumbaugh, David Kulp, Steven A McCarroll
The mammalian brain is composed of diverse, specialized cell populations, few of which we fully understand. To more systematically ascertain and learn from cellular specializations in the brain, we used Drop-seq to perform single-cell RNA sequencing of 690,000 cells sampled from nine regions of the adult mouse brain: frontal and posterior cortex (156,000 and 99,000 cells, respectively), hippocampus (113,000), thalamus (89,000), cerebellum (26,000), and all of the basal ganglia - the striatum (77,000), globus pallidus externus/nucleus basalis (66,000), entopeduncular/subthalamic nuclei (19,000), and the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (44,000). We developed computational approaches to distinguish biological from technical signals in single-cell data, then identified 565 transcriptionally distinct groups of cells, which we annotate and present through interactive online software we developed for visualizing and re-analyzing these data (DropViz). Comparison of cell classes and types across regions revealed features of brain organization. These included a neuronal gene-expression module for synthesizing axonal and presynaptic components; widely shared patterns in the combinatorial co-deployment of voltage-gated ion channels by diverse neuronal populations; functional distinctions among cells of the brain vasculature; and specialization of glutamatergic neurons across cortical regions to a degree not observed in other neuronal or non-neuronal populations. We describe systematic neuronal classifications for two complex, understudied regions of the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus externus and substantia nigra reticulata. In the striatum, where neuron types have been intensely researched, our data reveal a previously undescribed population of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) comprising 4% of SPNs. The adult mouse brain cell atlas can serve as a reference for analyses of development, disease, and evolution.
8,328 downloads neuroscience
We recently developed novel AAV capsids for efficient and noninvasive gene transfer across the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this protocol, we describe how to produce and systemically administer AAV-PHP viruses to label and/or genetically manipulate cells in the mouse nervous system and organs including the heart. The procedure comprises three separate stages: AAV production, intravenous delivery, and evaluation of transgene expression. The protocol spans eight days, excluding the time required to assess gene expression, and can be readily adopted by laboratories with standard molecular and cell culture capabilities. We provide guidelines for experimental design and choosing the capsid, cargo, and viral dose appropriate for the experimental aims. The procedures outlined here are adaptable to diverse biomedical applications, from anatomical and functional mapping to gene expression, silencing, and editing.
8,159 downloads neuroscience
We present a system for scalable and customizable recording and stimulation of neural activity. In large animals and humans, the current benchmark for high spatial and temporal resolution neural interfaces are fixed arrays of wire or silicon electrodes inserted into the parenchyma of the brain. However, probes that are large and stiff enough to penetrate the brain have been shown to cause acute and chronic damage and inflammation, which limits their longevity, stability, and yield. One approach to this problem is to separate the requirements of the insertion device, which should to be as stiff as possible, with the implanted device, which should be as small and flexible as possible. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and scalability of this approach with a system incorporating fine and flexible thin-film polymer probes, a fine and stiff insertion needle, and a robotic insertion machine. Together the system permits rapid and precise implantation of probes, each individually targeted to avoid observable vasculature and to attain diverse anatomical targets. As an initial demonstration of this system, we implanted arrays of electrodes in rat somatosensory cortex, recorded extracellular action potentials from them, and obtained histological images of the tissue response. This approach points the way toward a new generation of scaleable, stable, and safe neural interfaces, both for the basic scientific study of brain function and for clinical applications.
8,139 downloads neuroscience
Advances in silicon probe technology mean that in vivo electrophysiological recordings from hundreds of channels will soon become commonplace. To interpret these recordings we need fast, scalable and accurate methods for spike sorting, whose output requires minimal time for manual curation. Here we introduce Kilosort, a spike sorting framework that meets these criteria, and show that it allows rapid and accurate sorting of large-scale in vivo data. Kilosort models the recorded voltage as a sum of template waveforms triggered on the spike times, allowing overlapping spikes to be identified and resolved. Rapid processing is achieved thanks to a novel low-dimensional approximation for the spatiotemporal distribution of each template, and to batch-based optimization on GPUs. A novel post-clustering merging step based on the continuity of the templates substantially reduces the requirement for subsequent manual curation operations. We compare Kilosort to an established algorithm on data obtained from 384-channel electrodes, and show superior performance, at much reduced processing times. Data from 384-channel electrode arrays can be processed in approximately realtime. Kilosort is an important step towards fully automated spike sorting of multichannel electrode recordings, and is freely available github.com/cortex-lab/Kilosort.
7,909 downloads neuroscience
Similarity search, such as identifying similar images in a database or similar documents on the Web, is a fundamental computing problem faced by many large-scale information retrieval systems. We discovered that the fly's olfactory circuit solves this problem using a novel variant of a traditional computer science algorithm (called locality-sensitive hashing). The fly's circuit assigns similar neural activity patterns to similar input stimuli (odors), so that behaviors learned from one odor can be applied when a similar odor is experienced. The fly's algorithm, however, uses three new computational ingredients that depart from traditional approaches. We show that these ingredients can be translated to improve the performance of similarity search compared to traditional algorithms when evaluated on several benchmark datasets. Overall, this perspective helps illuminate the logic supporting an important sensory function (olfaction), and it provides a conceptually new algorithm for solving a fundamental computational problem.
7,905 downloads neuroscience
We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by extracting more than 100,000 statistical records from about 10,000 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published during the past 5 years. The reported median effect size was d=0.93 (inter-quartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and d=0.24 (0.11-0.42) for non-significant results. Median power to detect small, medium and large effects was 0.12, 0.44 and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. Power was lowest for cognitive neuroscience journals. 14% of papers reported some statistically significant results, although the respective F statistic and degrees of freedom proved that these were non-significant; p value errors positively correlated with journal impact factors. False report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.
7,856 downloads neuroscience
Structural and transcriptional changes during early brain maturation follow fixed developmental programs defined by genetics. However, whether this is true for functional network activity remains unknown, primarily due to experimental inaccessibility of the initial stages of the living human brain. Here, we analyzed cortical organoids that spontaneously developed periodic and regular oscillatory network events that are dependent on glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. These nested oscillations exhibit cross-frequency coupling, proposed to coordinate neuronal computation and communication. As evidence of potential network maturation, oscillatory activity subsequently transitioned to more spatiotemporally irregular patterns, capturing features observed in preterm human electroencephalography (EEG). These results show that the development of structured network activity in the human neocortex may follow stable genetic programming, even in the absence of external or subcortical inputs. Our model provides novel opportunities for investigating and manipulating the role of network activity in the developing human cortex.
7,483 downloads neuroscience
Chethan Pandarinath, Daniel J. O'Shea, Jasmine Collins, Rafal Jozefowicz, Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Eric M. Trautmann, Matthew T. Kaufman, Stephen I Ryu, Leigh R. Hochberg, Jaimie M. Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, L. F. Abbott, David Sussillo
Neuroscience is experiencing a data revolution in which simultaneous recording of many hundreds or thousands of neurons is revealing structure in population activity that is not apparent from single-neuron responses. This structure is typically extracted from trial-averaged data. Single-trial analyses are challenging due to incomplete sampling of the neural population, trial-to-trial variability, and fluctuations in action potential timing. Here we introduce Latent Factor Analysis via Dynamical Systems (LFADS), a deep learning method to infer latent dynamics from single-trial neural spiking data. LFADS uses a nonlinear dynamical system (a recurrent neural network) to infer the dynamics underlying observed population activity and to extract ‘de-noised’ single-trial firing rates from neural spiking data. We apply LFADS to a variety of monkey and human motor cortical datasets, demonstrating its ability to predict observed behavioral variables with unprecedented accuracy, extract precise estimates of neural dynamics on single trials, infer perturbations to those dynamics that correlate with behavioral choices, and combine data from non-overlapping recording sessions (spanning months) to improve inference of underlying dynamics. In summary, LFADS leverages all observations of a neural population's activity to accurately model its dynamics on single trials, opening the door to a detailed understanding of the role of dynamics in performing computation and ultimately driving behavior.
7,425 downloads neuroscience
Zhihao Zheng, J. Scott Lauritzen, Eric Perlman, Camenzind G. Robinson, Matthew Nichols, Daniel Milkie, Omar Torrens, John Price, Corey B. Fisher, Nadiya Sharifi, Steven A. Calle-Schuler, Lucia Kmecova, Iqbal J. Ali, Bill Karsh, Eric T. Trautman, John Bogovic, Philipp Hanslovsky, Gregory S. X. E. Jefferis, Michael Kazhdan, Khaled Khairy, Stephan Saalfeld, Richard D. Fetter, Davi D. Bock
Drosophila melanogaster has a rich repertoire of innate and learned behaviors. Its 100,000-neuron brain is a large but tractable target for comprehensive neural circuit mapping. Only electron microscopy (EM) enables complete, unbiased mapping of synaptic connectivity; however, the fly brain is too large for conventional EM. We developed a custom high-throughput EM platform and imaged the entire brain of an adult female fly. We validated the dataset by tracing brain-spanning circuitry involving the mushroom body (MB), intensively studied for its role in learning. Here we describe the complete set of olfactory inputs to the MB; find a new cell type providing driving input to Kenyon cells (the intrinsic MB neurons); identify neurons postsynaptic to Kenyon cell dendrites; and find that axonal arbors providing input to the MB calyx are more tightly clustered than previously indicated by light-level data. This freely available EM dataset will significantly accelerate Drosophila neuroscience.
7,372 downloads neuroscience
Ruixuan Gao, Shoh M Asano, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Pisarev Igor, Daniel E Milkie, Tsung-Li Liu, Singh Ved, Austin Graves, Grace H Huynh, Yongxin Zhao, John Bogovic, Jennifer Colonell, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Christopher Zugates, Susan Tappan, Alfredo Rodriguez, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Sean G Megason
Optical and electron microscopy have made tremendous inroads in understanding the complexity of the brain, but the former offers insufficient resolution to reveal subcellular details and the latter lacks the throughput and molecular contrast to visualize specific molecular constituents over mm-scale or larger dimensions. We combined expansion microscopy and lattice light sheet microscopy to image the nanoscale spatial relationships between proteins across the thickness of the mouse cortex or the entire Drosophila brain, including synaptic proteins at dendritic spines, myelination along axons, and presynaptic densities at dopaminergic neurons in every fly neuropil domain. The technology should enable statistically rich, large scale studies of neural development, sexual dimorphism, degree of stereotypy, and structural correlations to behavior or neural activity, all with molecular contrast.
7,204 downloads neuroscience
Neuroscience has long focused on finding encoding models that effectively ask "what predicts neural spiking?" and generalized linear models (GLMs) are a typical approach. It is often unknown how much of explainable neural activity is captured, or missed, when fitting a GLM. Here we compared the predictive performance of GLMs to three leading machine learning methods: feedforward neural networks, gradient boosted trees (using XGBoost), and stacked ensembles that combine the predictions of several methods. We predicted spike counts in macaque motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices from standard representations of reaching kinematics, and in rat hippocampal cells from open field location and orientation. In general, the modern methods (particularly XGBoost and the ensemble) produced more accurate spike predictions and were less sensitive to the preprocessing of features. This discrepancy in performance suggests that standard feature sets may often relate to neural activity in a nonlinear manner not captured by GLMs. Encoding models built with machine learning techniques, which can be largely automated, more accurately predict spikes and can offer meaningful benchmarks for simpler models.
7,142 downloads neuroscience
Over the last decade, artificial neural networks (ANNs), have undergone a revolution, catalyzed in large part by better tools for supervised learning. However, training such networks requires enormous data sets of labeled examples, whereas young animals (including humans) typically learn with few or no labeled examples. This stark contrast with biological learning has led many in the ANN community posit that instead of supervised paradigms, animals must rely instead primarily on unsupervised learning, leading the search for better unsupervised algorithms. Here we argue that much of an animal's behavioral repertoire is not the result of clever learning algorithms--supervised or unsupervised--but arises instead from behavior programs already present at birth. These programs arise through evolution, are encoded in the genome, and emerge as a consequence of wiring up the brain. Specifically, animals are born with highly structured brain connectivity, which enables them learn very rapidly. Recognizing the importance of the highly structured connectivity suggests a path toward building ANNs capable of rapid learning.
7,076 downloads neuroscience
We demonstrate a two-photon imaging system with corrected optics including a custom objective that provides cellular resolution across a 3.5 mm field of view (9.6 mm^2). Temporally multiplexed excitation pathways can be independently repositioned in XY and Z to simultaneously image regions within the expanded field of view. We used this new imaging system to measure activity correlations between neurons in different cortical areas in awake mice.
6,936 downloads neuroscience
A neuronal population encodes information most efficiently when its activity is uncorrelated and high-dimensional, and most robustly when its activity is correlated and lower-dimensional. Here, we analyzed the correlation structure of natural image coding, in large visual cortical populations recorded from awake mice. Evoked population activity was high dimensional, with correlations obeying an unexpected power-law: the n-th principal component variance scaled as 1/n. This was not inherited from the 1/f spectrum of natural images, because it persisted after stimulus whitening. We proved mathematically that the variance spectrum must decay at least this fast if a population code is smooth, i.e. if small changes in input cannot dominate population activity. The theory also predicts larger power-law exponents for lower-dimensional stimulus ensembles, which we validated experimentally. These results suggest that coding smoothness represents a fundamental constraint governing correlations in neural population codes.
6,914 downloads neuroscience
The development of new imaging and optogenetics techniques to study the dynamics of large neuronal circuits is generating datasets of unprecedented volume and complexity, demanding the development of appropriate analysis tools. We present a tutorial for the use of a comprehensive computational toolbox for the analysis of neuronal population activity imaging. It consists of tools for image pre-processing and segmentation, estimation of significant single-neuron single-trial signals, mapping event-related neuronal responses, detection of activity-correlated neuronal clusters, exploration of population dynamics, and analysis of clusters' features against surrogate control datasets. They are integrated in a modular and versatile processing pipeline, adaptable to different needs. The clustering module is capable of detecting flexible, dynamically activated neuronal assemblies, consistent with the distributed population coding of the brain. We demonstrate the suitability of the toolbox for a variety of calcium imaging datasets, and provide a case study to explain its implementation.
6,909 downloads neuroscience
Tamara B. Franklin, Bianca A. Silva, Zina Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E. Masferrer, Yang Zhan, Angie Kaplan, Louise Greetham, Violaine Verrechia, Andreas Halman, Sara Pagella, Alexei L. Vyssotski, Anna Illarionova, Valery Grinevich, Tiago Branco, Cornelius T. Gross
The prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in adjusting an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal grey, a brainstem area vital for defensive responses. Social defeat caused a weakening of functional connectivity between these two areas and selective inhibition of these projections mimicked the behavioral effects of social defeat. These findings define a specific neural projection by which the prefrontal cortex can control and adapt social behavior.
6,762 downloads neuroscience
Brian L Edlow, Azma Mareyam, Andreas Horn, Jonathan R. Polimeni, Thomas Witzel, M. Dylan Tisdall, Jean Augustinack, Jason P. Stockmann, Bram R Diamond, Allison Stevens, Lee S. Tirrell, Rebecca D Folkerth, Lawrence L Wald, Bruce Fischl, Andre van der Kouwe
We present an ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset of an ex vivo human brain specimen. The brain specimen was donated by a 58-year-old woman who had no history of neurological disease and died of non-neurological causes. After fixation in 10% formalin, the specimen was imaged on a 7 Tesla MRI scanner at 100 micron isotropic resolution using a custom-built 31-channel receive array coil. Single-echo multi-flip Fast Low-Angle SHot (FLASH) data were acquired over 100 hours of scan time (25 hours per flip angle), allowing derivation of a T1 parameter map and synthesized FLASH volumes. This dataset provides an unprecedented view of the three-dimensional neuroanatomy of the human brain. To optimize the utility of this resource, we warped the dataset into standard stereotactic space. We now distribute the dataset in both native space and stereotactic space to the academic community via multiple platforms. We envision that this dataset will have a broad range of investigational, educational, and clinical applications that will advance understanding of human brain anatomy in health and disease.
6,740 downloads neuroscience
Peter H Li, Larry F. Lindsey, Michal Januszewski, Zhihao Zheng, Alexander Shakeel Bates, István Taisz, Mike Tyka, Matthew Nichols, Feng Li, Eric Perlman, Jeremy Maitin-Shepard, Tim Blakely, Laramie Leavitt, Gregory S.X.E. Jefferis, Davi Bock, Viren Jain
Reconstruction of neural circuitry at single-synapse resolution is an attractive target for improving understanding of the nervous system in health and disease. Serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM) is among the most prolific imaging methods employed in pursuit of such reconstructions. We demonstrate how Flood-Filling Networks (FFNs) can be used to computationally segment a forty-teravoxel whole-brain Drosophila ssTEM volume. To compensate for data irregularities and imperfect global alignment, FFNs were combined with procedures that locally re-align serial sections and dynamically adjust image content. The proposed approach produced a largely merger-free segmentation of the entire ssTEM Drosophila brain, which we make freely available. As compared to manual tracing using an efficient skeletonization strategy, the segmentation enabled circuit reconstruction and analysis workflows that were an order of magnitude faster.
6,299 downloads neuroscience
When experts are immersed in a task, do their brains prioritize task-related activity? Most efforts to understand neural activity during well-learned tasks focus on cognitive computations and specific task-related movements. We wondered whether task-performing animals explore a broader movement landscape, and how this impacts neural activity. We characterized movements using video and other sensors and measured neural activity using widefield and two-photon imaging. Cortex-wide activity was dominated by movements, especially uninstructed movements, reflecting unknown priorities of the animal. Some uninstructed movements were aligned to trial events. Accounting for them revealed that neurons with similar trial-averaged activity often reflected utterly different combinations of cognitive and movement variables. Other movements occurred idiosyncratically, accounting for trial-by-trial fluctuations that are often considered noise. This held true for extracellular Neuropixels recordings in cortical and subcortical areas. Our observations argue that animals execute expert decisions while performing richly varied, uninstructed movements that profoundly shape neural activity.
6,226 downloads neuroscience
Bosiljka Tasic, Zizhen Yao, Kimberly A Smith, Lucas Graybuck, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Darren Bertagnolli, Jeff Goldy, Emma Garren, Michael N Economo, Sarada Viswanathan, Osnat Penn, Trygve E Bakken, Vilas Menon, Jeremy Miller, Olivia Fong, Karla E Hirokawa, Kanan Lathia, Christine Rimorin, Michael Tieu, Rachael Larsen, Tamara Casper, Eliza Barkan, Matthew Kroll, Seana Parry, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Daniel Hirchstein, Julie Pendergraft, Tae Kyung Kim, Aaron Szafer, Nick Dee, Peter Groblewski, Ian Wickersham, Ali Cetin, Julie A Harris, Boaz P Levi, Susan M Sunkin, Linda Madisen, Tanya L Daigle, Loren Looger, Amy Bernard, John Phillips, Ed Lein, Michael Hawrylycz, Karel Svoboda, Allan R Jones, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng
Neocortex contains a multitude of cell types segregated into layers and functionally distinct regions. To investigate the diversity of cell types across the mouse neocortex, we analyzed 12,714 cells from the primary visual cortex (VISp), and 9,035 cells from the anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) by deep single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), identifying 116 transcriptomic cell types. These two regions represent distant poles of the neocortex and perform distinct functions. We define 50 inhibitory transcriptomic cell types, all of which are shared across both cortical regions. In contrast, 49 of 52 excitatory transcriptomic types were found in either VISp or ALM, with only three present in both. By combining single cell RNA-seq and retrograde labeling, we demonstrate correspondence between excitatory transcriptomic types and their region-specific long-range target specificity. This study establishes a combined transcriptomic and projectional taxonomy of cortical cell types from functionally distinct regions of the mouse cortex.
- Top preprints of 2018
- Paper search
- Author leaderboards
- Overall metrics
- The API
- Email newsletter
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!