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Results 1 through 20 out of 14742

in category neuroscience


1: An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels

Elon Musk, Neuralink

138,064 downloads (posted 17 Jul 2019)

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) hold promise for the restoration of sensory and motor function and the treatment of neurological disorders, but clinical BMIs have not yet been widely adopted, in part because modest channel counts have limited their potential. In this white paper, we describe Neuralink’s first steps toward a scalable high-bandwidth BMI system. We have built arrays of small and flexible electrode “threads”, with as many as 3,072 electrodes per array distributed across 96 threads. We have also built a neurosurgical robot capable of inserting six threads (192 electrodes) per minute. Each thread can be individually inserted into the brain with micron precision for avoidance of surface vasculature and targeting specific brain regions. The electrode array is packaged into a small implantable device that contains custom chips for low-power on-board amplification and digitization: the package for 3,072 channels occupies less than (23 × 18.5 × 2) mm3. A single USB-C cable provides full-bandwidth data streaming from the device, recording from all channels simultaneously. This system has achieved a spiking yield of up to 70% in chronically implanted electrodes. Neuralink’s approach to BMI has unprecedented packaging density and scalability in a clinically relevant package.


2: Deep image reconstruction from human brain activity

Guohua Shen, Tomoyasu Horikawa et al.

127,478 downloads (posted 28 Dec 2017)

Machine learning-based analysis of human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns has enabled the visualization of perceptual content. However, it has been limited to the reconstruction with low-level image bases or to the matching to exemplars. Recent work showed that visual cortical activity can be decoded (translated) into hierarchical features of a deep neural network (DNN) for the same input image, providing a way to make use of the information from hierarchical visual features. Here, we present a nove...


3: Could a neuroscientist understand a microprocessor?

Eric Jonas, Konrad Paul Kording

102,083 downloads (posted 26 May 2016)

There is a popular belief in neuroscience that we are primarily data limited, and that producing large, multimodal, and complex datasets will, with the help of advanced data analysis algorithms, lead to fundamental insights into the way the brain processes information. These datasets do not yet exist, and if they did we would have no way of evaluating whether or not the algorithmically-generated insights were sufficient or even correct. To address this, here we take a classical microprocessor as a model organism, and us...


4: Prefrontal cortex as a meta-reinforcement learning system

Jane X Wang, Zeb Kurth-Nelson et al.

30,881 downloads (posted 06 Apr 2018)

Over the past twenty years, neuroscience research on reward-based learning has converged on a canonical model, under which the neurotransmitter dopamine 'stamps in' associations between situations, actions and rewards by modulating the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. However, a growing number of recent findings have placed this standard model under strain. In the present work, we draw on recent advances in artificial intelligence to introduce a new theory of reward-based learning. Here, the dopamine sy...


5: Towards an integration of deep learning and neuroscience

Adam H Marblestone, Greg Wayne et al.

28,355 downloads (posted 13 Jun 2016)

Neuroscience has focused on the detailed implementation of computation, studying neural codes, dynamics and circuits. In machine learning, however, artificial neural networks tend to eschew precisely designed codes, dynamics or circuits in favor of brute force optimization of a cost function, often using simple and relatively uniform initial architectures. Two recent developments have emerged within machine learning that create an opportunity to connect these seemingly divergent perspectives. First, structured architect...


6: Non-neuronal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory system suggests mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated anosmia

David Brann, Tatsuya Tsukahara et al.

25,177 downloads (posted 27 Mar 2020)

Altered olfactory function is a common symptom of COVID-19, but its etiology is unknown. A key question is whether SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) - the causal agent in COVID-19 - affects olfaction directly by infecting olfactory sensory neurons or their targets in the olfactory bulb, or indirectly, through perturbation of supporting cells. Here we identify cell types in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb that express SARS-CoV-2 cell entry molecules. Bulk sequencing revealed that mouse, non-human primate and human olfactory...


7: Sex Differences In The Adult Human Brain: Evidence From 5,216 UK Biobank Participants

Stuart J. Ritchie, Simon R Cox et al.

23,792 downloads (posted 04 Apr 2017)

Sex differences in the human brain are of interest, for example because of sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2,750 female, 2,466 male participants; 44-77 years). Males had higher volumes, surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had thicker cortices and higher white matter tract complexity. There was considerable distributiona...


8: Why Does the Neocortex Have Columns, A Theory of Learning the Structure of the World

Jeff Hawkins, Subutai Ahmad et al.

20,937 downloads (posted 12 Jul 2017)

Neocortical regions are organized into columns and layers. Connections between layers run mostly perpendicular to the surface suggesting a columnar functional organization. Some layers have long-range excitatory lateral connections suggesting interactions between columns. Similar patterns of connectivity exist in all regions but their exact role remain a mystery. In this paper, we propose a network model composed of columns and layers that performs robust object learning and recognition. Each column integrates its chang...


9: Using DeepLabCut for 3D markerless pose estimation across species and behaviors

Tanmay Nath, Mackenzie Weygandt Mathis et al.

18,548 downloads (posted 24 Nov 2018)

Noninvasive behavioral tracking of animals during experiments is crucial to many scientific pursuits. Extracting the poses of animals without using markers is often essential for measuring behavioral effects in biomechanics, genetics, ethology & neuroscience. Yet, extracting detailed poses without markers in dynamically changing backgrounds has been challenging. We recently introduced an open source toolbox called DeepLabCut that builds on a state-of-the-art human pose estimation algorithm to allow a user to train a dee...


10: The hippocampus as a predictive map

Kimberly L. Stachenfeld, Matthew M. Botvinick et al.

15,761 downloads (posted 28 Dec 2016)

A cognitive map has long been the dominant metaphor for hippocampal function, embracing the idea that place cells encode a geometric representation of space. However, evidence for predictive coding, reward sensitivity, and policy dependence in place cells suggests that the representation is not purely spatial. We approach this puzzle from a reinforcement learning perspective: what kind of spatial representation is most useful for maximizing future reward? We show that the answer takes the form of a predictive representa...


11: A Framework for Intelligence and Cortical Function Based on Grid Cells in the Neocortex

Jeff Hawkins, Marcus Lewis et al.

14,099 downloads (posted 13 Oct 2018)

How the neocortex works is a mystery. In this paper we propose a novel framework for understanding its function. Grid cells are neurons in the entorhinal cortex that represent the location of an animal in its environment. Recent evidence suggests that grid cell-like neurons may also be present in the neocortex. We propose that grid cells exist throughout the neocortex, in every region and in every cortical column. They define a location-based framework for how the neocortex functions. Whereas grid cells in the entorhina...


12: Natural image reconstruction from brain waves: a novel visual BCI system with native feedback

Grigory Rashkov, Anatoly Bobe et al.

13,645 downloads (posted 01 Oct 2019)

Here we hypothesize that observing the visual stimuli of different categories trigger distinct brain states that can be decoded from noninvasive EEG recordings. We introduce an effective closed-loop BCI system that reconstructs the observed or imagined stimuli images from the co-occurring brain wave parameters. The reconstructed images are presented to the subject as a visual feedback. The developed system is applicable to training BCI-naïve subjects because of the user-friendly and intuitive way the visual patterns are...


13: 7 Tesla MRI of the ex vivo human brain at 100 micron resolution

Brian L. Edlow, Azma Mareyam et al.

13,285 downloads (posted 31 May 2019)

We present an ultra-high resolution MRI dataset of an ex vivo human brain specimen. The brain specimen was donated by a 58-year-old woman who had no history of neurological disease and died of non-neurological causes. After fixation in 10% formalin, the specimen was imaged on a 7 Tesla MRI scanner at 100 μm isotropic resolution using a custom-built 31-channel receive array coil. Single-echo multi-flip Fast Low-Angle SHot (FLASH) data were acquired over 100 hours of scan time (25 hours per flip angle), allowing derivatio...


14: Panoptic vDISCO imaging reveals neuronal connectivity, remote trauma effects and meningeal vessels in intact transparent mice

Ruiyao Cai, Chenchen Pan et al.

13,037 downloads (posted 23 Jul 2018)

Analysis of entire transparent rodent bodies could provide holistic information on biological systems in health and disease. However, it has been challenging to reliably image and quantify signal from endogenously expressed fluorescent proteins in large cleared mouse bodies due to the low signal contrast. Here, we devised a pressure driven, nanobody based whole-body immunolabeling technology to enhance the signal of fluorescent proteins by up to two orders of magnitude. This allowed us to image subcellular details in tr...


15: Automated analysis of whole brain vasculature using machine learning

Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Johannes C. Paetzold et al.

12,532 downloads (posted 18 Apr 2019)

Tissue clearing methods enable imaging of intact biological specimens without sectioning. However, reliable and scalable analysis of such large imaging data in 3D remains a challenge. Towards this goal, we developed a deep learning-based framework to quantify and analyze the brain vasculature, named Vessel Segmentation & Analysis Pipeline (VesSAP). Our pipeline uses a fully convolutional network with a transfer learning approach for segmentation. We systematically analyzed vascular features of the whole brains including...


16: The successor representation in human reinforcement learning

Ida Momennejad, EM Russek et al.

12,464 downloads (posted 27 Oct 2016)

Theories of reward learning in neuroscience have focused on two families of algorithms, thought to capture deliberative vs. habitual choice. Model-based algorithms compute the value of candidate actions from scratch, whereas model-free algorithms make choice more efficient but less flexible by storing pre-computed action values. We examine an intermediate algorithmic family, the successor representation (SR), which balances flexibility and efficiency by storing partially computed action values: predictions about future ...


17: Deep Neural Networks In Computational Neuroscience

Tim C Kietzmann, Patrick McClure et al.

12,358 downloads (posted 04 May 2017)

The goal of computational neuroscience is to find mechanistic explanations of how the nervous system processes information to give rise to cognitive function and behaviour. At the heart of the field are its models, i.e. mathematical and computational descriptions of the system being studied, which map sensory stimuli to neural responses and/or neural to behavioural responses. These models range from simple to complex. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) have come to dominate several domains of artificial intelligence ...


18: Deep neural networks: a new framework for modelling biological vision and brain information processing

Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

12,304 downloads (posted 26 Oct 2015)

Recent advances in neural network modelling have enabled major strides in computer vision and other artificial intelligence applications. Human-level visual recognition abilities are coming within reach of artificial systems. Artificial neural networks are inspired by the brain and their computations could be implemented in biological neurons. Convolutional feedforward networks, which now dominate computer vision, take further inspiration from the architecture of the primate visual hierarchy. However, the current models...


19: Suite2p: beyond 10,000 neurons with standard two-photon microscopy

Marius Pachitariu, Carsen Stringer et al.

11,594 downloads (posted 30 Jun 2016)

Two-photon microscopy of calcium-dependent sensors has enabled unprecedented recordings from vast populations of neurons. While the sensors and microscopes have matured over several generations of development, computational methods to process the resulting movies remain inefficient and can give results that are hard to interpret. Here we introduce Suite2p: a fast, accurate and complete pipeline that registers raw movies, detects active cells, extracts their calcium traces and infers their spike times. Suite2p runs on st...


20: Spontaneous behaviors drive multidimensional, brain-wide population activity

Carsen Stringer, Marius Pachitariu et al.

11,356 downloads (posted 22 Apr 2018)

Cortical responses to sensory stimuli are highly variable, and sensory cortex exhibits intricate spontaneous activity even without external sensory input. Cortical variability and spontaneous activity have been variously proposed to represent random noise, recall of prior experience, or encoding of ongoing behavioral and cognitive variables. Here, by recording over 10,000 neurons in mouse visual cortex, we show that spontaneous activity reliably encodes a high-dimensional latent state, which is partially related to the ...